Skip to main content

Sociopolitical Values: The Neglected Factor in Culturally- Competent Psychotherapy

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Prejudice, Stigma, Privilege, and Oppression

Abstract

The role of sociopolitical values remains a neglected factor in clinical practice. Many clinicians regularly commit “cultural malpractice” by failing to take into account their own sociopolitical values and those of their clients. However, sociopolitical values may be the most important factor to consider in any culturally-competent psychotherapy that is truly client-centered. Sociopolitical values are often central to a client’s personality and identity. As such, understanding a client’s sociopolitical values can be useful therapeutically, and a congruence between therapist and client sociopolitical values may enhance the therapeutic relationship. Although a lack of value congruence can be detrimental to the therapeutic relationship, this need not be the case if the therapist is culturally sensitive. Because mental health professionals overwhelmingly tilt to the left politically, they should be cognizant of the fact that their politically conservative, libertarian, and centrist clients will not share many of their values. Clinicians must be sensitive to the impact this may have on the therapeutic alliance and the ways in which this influences their diagnostic and therapeutic choices. Ensuring that clinicians are culturally sensitive with respect to sociopolitical values will require systemic changes in how mental health professions conceptualize culturally- and ethically-competent practice, develop and evaluate standards and guidelines for multicultural practice, and recruit and educate clinicians. While such advances are developing, however, clinicians can adopt practices to help ensure that they will be culturally competent when working with clients who have sociopolitical values different from their own.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 219.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 379.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    I would like to thank Mary Alice Fisher, Ph.D., Director of the Center for Ethical Practice in Charlottesville, VA, for distributing the surveys in her continuing education seminars. Dr. Fisher is the author of Confidentiality Limits in Psychotherapy: Ethics Checklists for Mental Health Professionals (2016), American Psychological Association.

  2. 2.

    An interesting example of the relevance of knowing a client’s SPVs and religious beliefs and how such values may affect treatment goals, is research showing that authoritarian parenting, which has been well established in the literature as being potential harmful to children’s development, may not necessarily be harmful to children in conservative religious families because “children immersed in a supportive community in which a systematic rationale for strict governing is explicitly promoted experience this governing differently from children lacking such support and rationale” (Gunnoe, Hetherington, & Reiss, 2006, p. 590).

References

  • Abramowitz, C. V., & Dokecki, P. R. (1977). The politics of clinical judgment: Early empirical returns. Psychological Bulletin, 84(3), 460–476.

    Google Scholar 

  • Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J., Sanford, N., & Gordon, P. E. (2019). The authoritarian personality. New York: Verso.

    Google Scholar 

  • Altemeyer, B. (1988). Enemies of freedom: Understanding right-wing authoritarianism. New York: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists Code of Ethics. (2015). Retrieved 2019, from: https://www.aamft.org/Legal_Ethics/Code_of_Ethics.aspx

  • American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). The principles of medical ethics with annotations especially applicable to psychiatry. Arlington, VA: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  • American Psychological Association. (2018). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  • American Psychological Association. (2009). Guidelines and principles for accreditation of professional programs in psychology. Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  • American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist, 58, 377–402.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • American Psychological Association. (2017). Multicultural guidelines: An ecological approach to context, identity, and intersectionality. Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arredondo, P., Toporek, R., Brown, S., Sanchez, J., Locke, D. C., Sanchez, J., & Stadler, H. (1996). Operationalization of the multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 24, 42–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aten, J. D., & Leach, M. M. (Eds.). (2008). Spirituality and therapeutic process: A comprehensive resource from intake to termination. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Atkinson, D. R., & Schein, S. (1986). Similarity in counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 14(2), 319–354.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1974, Feb). Salvation and its vicissitudes: Clinical psychology and political values. American Psychologist, 29, 124–129.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bergin, A. E., Payne, I. E., & Richards, P. S. (1996). Values in psychotherapy. In E. P. Shafranske (Ed.), Religion and the clinical practice of psychology (pp. 297–321). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Bethune, S. (2019, Jan). Gen Z more likely to report mental health concerns. APA Monitor, 20–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bilgrave, D. P., & Deluty, R. H. (2002). Religious beliefs and political ideologies as predictors of psychotherapeutic orientations of clinical and counseling psychologists. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 39(3), 245–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brody, S. (1994). Traditional ideology, stress, and psychotherapy use. Journal of Psychology, 128, 5–13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, B., & Manning, J. (2014). Microaggressions and moral cultures. Comparative Sociology, 13, 692–726.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caprara, G. V., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2004). Personalizing politics: A congruency model of political preference. American Psychologist, 59(7), 581–594.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cartwright, B. Y., Daniels, J., & Zhang, S. (2008). Assessing multicultural competence: Perceived versus demonstrated performance. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(3), 318–322.

    Google Scholar 

  • Comas-Diaz, L. (2012). Multicultural care: A clinician’s guide to cultural competence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Comas-Díaz, L. (2014). Multicultural psychotherapy. In F. T. L. Leong, L. Comas-Díaz, G. C. Nagayama Hall, V. C. McLoyd, & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), APA handbook of multicultural psychology, Vol. 2: Applications and training (p. 419–441). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cooper, L. A., Roter, D. L., Johnson, R. L., Ford, D. E., Steinwachs, D. M., & Powe, N. R. (2003). Patient-centered communication, ratings of care, and concordance of patient and physician race. Annals of Internal Medicine, 139(11), 907–915.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cornish, J. A. E., Schreier, B. A., Nadkarni, L. I., Metzger, L. H., & Rodolfa, E. R. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of multicultural counseling competencies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. (2016). 2016 CACREP standards. Accessed at www.cacrep.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2016-standards-with-glossary-5.3.2018

  • Cremmins, J. (2002). The rift between religion and psychotherapy: Can it be healed? Journal of Pastoral Counseling, 37, 10–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cummings, N., & O’Donohue, W. (2018). Problems in professional and ethical standards and guidelines regarding culturally competent practice with racial, ethnic, linguistic, and culturally diverse groups. In C. L. Frisby & W. T. O’Donohue (Eds.), Cultural competence in applied psychology: An evaluation of current status and future directions (pp. 155–168). New York, NY: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Cummings, N., O’Donohue, W., & Cummings, J. (2009). Psychology’s war on religion. Scottsdale, AZ: Tucker & Zeig.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cushman, P. (1995). Constructing the self, constructing America: A cultural history of psychotherapy. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Delaney, H. D., Miller, W. R., & Bisono, A. M. (2013). Religiosity and spirituality among psychologists: A survey of clinician members of the American Psychological Association. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 1(S), 95–106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Doherty, W. (2017, May/June). On therapy in the age of Trump. Psychotherapy Networker, 34–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Duarte, J. L., Crawford, J. T., Stern, S., Haidt, J., Jussim, L., & Tetlock, P. E. (2015). Ideological diversity with improve psychological science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 38, 1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ditto, P. H., Brittany, S., Liu, B. S., Clark, C. J., Wojcik, S. P., Chen, E. E., … Zinger, J. F. (2018). At least bis is bipartisan: A meta-analytic comparison of partisan bias in liberals and conservatives. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 14(2), 1–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ellis, A. (1983). The case against religiosity. New York, NY: Institute for Rational Emotive Therapy.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finkel, M. J., Storaasli, R. D., Bandele, A., & Schaefer, V. (2003). Diversity training in graduate school: An exploratory evaluation of the safe zone project. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(5), 555–561.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fisher, C. B. (2014). Multicultural ethics in professional psychology practice, consulting, and training. In F. T. L. Leong, L. Comas-Diaz, G. C. N. Hall, V. C. McLoyd, & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), APA Handbook of multicultural psychology, Volume 2: Applications and training (pp. 35–58). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Fouad, N. A., & Arredondo, P. (2010). Becoming culturally oriented: Practical advice for psychologists and educators. Washington, DC: American Psychological association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frisby, C. L. (2018a). History and development of cultural competence evaluation in applied psychology. In C. L. Frisby & W. T. O’Donohue (Eds.), Cultural competence in applied psychology: An evaluation of current status and future directions (pp. 57–94). New York, NY: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Frisby, C. L. (2018b). Viewpoint bias and cultural competency advocacy within applied psychology. In C. L. Frisby & W. T. O’Donohue (Eds.), Cultural competence in applied psychology: An evaluation of current status and future directions (pp. 169–207). New York, NY: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Frisby, C., & O’Donohue, W. (Eds.). (2018). Cultural competence in applied psychology: An evaluation of current status and future directions. New York, NY: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frisby, C. L., O’Donohue, W., Benuto, L. T., & Casas, J. B. (2018). Conceptual and empirical issues in training culturally competent psychologists. In C. L. Frisby & W. T. O’Donohue (Eds.), Cultural competence in applied psychology: An evaluation of current status and future directions (pp. 95–102). New York, NY: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Gartner, J., Harmatz, M., Hohmann, A., Larson, D., & Gartner, A. F. (1990). The effect of patient and clinician ideology on clinical judgment: A study of ideological countertransference. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 27(1), 98–106.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gass, C. S. (1984). Orthodox Christian values related to psychotherapy and mental health. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 12(3), 230–237.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glad, D. D. (1959). Operational values in psychotherapy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg, J., & Jonas, E. (2003). Psychological motives and political orientation – The left, the right, and the rigid: Comment on Jost et al. (2003). Psychological Bulletin, 129(3), 376–382.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gunnoe, M. L., Hetherington, E. M., & Reiss, D. (2006). Differential impact of fathers’ authoritarian parenting on early adolescent adjustment in conservative protestant versus other families. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(4), 589–596.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108, 814–834.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Haidt, J. (2007). The new synthesis in moral psychology. Science, 316(5827), 998–1002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haidt, J. (2012). The righteous mind: Why good people are divided by politics. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haidt, J., & Graham, J. (2007). When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize. Social Justice Research, 20, 98–116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haidt, J., Graham, J., & Joseph, C. (2009). Above and below left-right: Ideological narratives and moral foundations. Psychological Inquiry, 20, 110–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haidt, J., Rosenberg, E., & Hom, H. (2003). Differentiating diversities: Moral diversity is not like other kinds. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 1–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hall, C. I. (1997). Cultural malpractice: The growing obsolescence of psychology with the changing U.S. population. American Psychologist, 52, 642–651.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hall, J. A., Horgan, T. G., Stein, T. S., & Roter, T. L. (2002). Liking in the physician-patient relationship. Patient Education and Counseling, 48, 69–77.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hallam, R. (2018). The therapy relationship: A special kind of friendship. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Halleck, S. L. (1971). The politics of therapy. New York, NY: Science House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hays, P. A., & Iwamasa, G. Y. (2006). Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy: Assessment, practice, and supervision. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Hirsh, J. B., Kang, S. K., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2012). Personalized persuasion: Tailoring persuasive appeals to recipients’ personality traits. Psychological Science, 23(6), 578–581.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Holden, K., McGregor, B., Thandi, P., Fresh, E., Sheats, K., Belton, A., … Satcher, D. (2014). Toward culturally centered integrative care for addressing mental health disparities among ethnic minorities. Psychological Services, 11(4), 357–368.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hook, J. N., Worthington, E. L., Davis, D. E., Jennings, D. J., & Gartner, A. L. (2010). Empirically supported religious and spiritual therapies. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 46–72.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Horvath, A. O., Re, A. C. D., Flückiger, C., & Symonds, D. (2011). Alliance in individual psychotherapy. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Evidence-based responsiveness (p. 25–69). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hwang, W. (2006). The psychotherapy adaptation and modification framework. American Psychologist, 61(7), 702–715.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hyland, M. (1974). The anticipated belief theory of prejudice: Analyses and evaluation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 4, 179–200.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Inman, A. G., & Ladany, N. (2014). Multicultural competencies in psychotherapy supervision. In F. T. L. Leong, L. Comas-Diaz, G. C. N. Hall, V. C. McLoyd, & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), APA Handbook of multicultural psychology, Volume 2: Applications and training (pp. 643–658). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Insko, C. A., Nacoste, R. W., & Moe, J. L. (1983). Belief congruence and racial discrimination: Review of the evidence and critical evaluation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 13(2), 153–174.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jost, J. T., Glaser, J., Kruglanski, A. W., & Sulloway, F. J. (2003). Political conservatism as motivated social cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 129(3), 339–375.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jost, J. T., & Amodio, D. M. (2012). Political ideology as motivated social cognition: Behavioral and neuroscientific evidence. Motivation and Emotion, 36(1), 55–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kottler, J. A. (2010). On being a therapist (4th ed.). New York, NK: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lacewing, M. (2014). Psychodynamic therapy, insight, and therapeutic change. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 21(2), 154–171.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lambert, M. J., & Baldwin, S. A. (2009). Some observations on studying therapists instead of treatment packages. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 16(1), 82–85.

    Google Scholar 

  • LaRoche, M. J., & Maxie, A. (2003). Ten considerations in addressing cultural differences in psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(2), 180–186.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lakoff, G. (2016). Moral politics: How liberals and conservatives think. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leong, F. T. L. (2007). Cultural accommodation as method and metaphor. American Psychologist, 62(8), 916–927.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leong, F. T. L., Comas-Diaz, L., Hall, G. C. N., McLoyd, V. C., & Trimble, J. E. (Eds.). (2014). APA Handbook of multicultural psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, K. N., & Walsh, W. B. (1980). Effects of value-communication style and similarity of values on counselor evaluation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 27, 305–314.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lilienfeld, S. (2017). Microaggressions: Strong claims, inadequate evidence. Psychological Science, 12, 138–169.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luborsky, L., Rosenthal, R., Diguer, L., Andrusyna, T. P., Berman, J. S., Levitt, J. T., et al. (2002). The dodo bird verdict is alive and well – Mostly. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 2–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lukianoff, G., & Haidt, J. (2018). The coddling of the American mind: How good intentions and bad ideas are setting a generation up for failure. New York, NY: Penguin Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin, D. J., Garske, J. P., & Davis, M. K. (2000). Relation of the therapeutic alliance with outcome and other variables: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 68, 438–450.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mazer, D. B. (1979). Toward a social psychology of diagnosis: Similarity, attraction, and clinical evaluation. Journal of Counseling & Clinical Psychology, 47, 586–588.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mendez, M. F. (2017). A neurology of the conservative-liberal dimension of political ideology. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 29(2), 86–94.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, O. L., & Takeuchi, D. T. (2014). Help seeking and service utilization. In F. T. L. Leong, L. Comas-Diaz, G. C. N. Hall, V. C. McLoyd, & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), APA Handbook of multicultural psychology, Volume 2: Applications and training (pp. 529–542). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Mezei, L. (1971). Perceived social pressure as an explanation of shifts in the relative influence of race and belief on prejudice across social situations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 19, 69–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, G. (1999). The development of the spiritual focus in counseling and counselor education. Journal of Counseling and Development, 77(4), 498–501.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, W. R., & Delaney, H. D. (2005). Judeo-Christian perspectives on psychology: Human nature, motivation, and change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Milstein, G., Manierre, A., & Yali, A. M. (2010). Psychological care for persons of diverse religions: A collaborative continuum. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 371–381.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Monk, G., Winslade, J., & Sinclair, S. (2008). New horizons in multicultural counseling. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Munoz, R. F., & Mendelson, T. (2005). Toward evidence-based interventions for diverse populations: The San Francisco general hospital prevention and treatment manuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 790–799.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Muran, J. C. (2007). A relational turn on thick description. In J. C. Muran (Ed.), Dialogues on difference: Studies of diversity in the therapeutic relationship (pp. 257–274). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • National Association of Social Workers. (2017). Code of ethics. Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  • Neumann, J. K., Harvill, L. M., & Callahan, M. (1995). Impact of humanistic, liberal Christian, and Evangelical Christian values on the self-reported opinions of radiologists and psychiatrists. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 23(3), 198–207.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Norton, A. L., & Tan, T. X. (2018). The relationship between licensed mental health counselors’ political ideology and counseling theory preference. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 89(1), 86–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Donohue, W. (2016). Oppression, privilege, bias, prejudice, and stereotyping: Problems in the APA code of ethics. Ethics & Behavior, 26(7), 527–544.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Donohue, W., & Benuto, L. (2010). The many problems of cultural sensitivity. The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, 7(2), 34–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orlinsky, D. E., Ronnestad, M. H., & Willutzki, U. (2004). Fifty years of psychotherapy process-outcome research: Continuity and change. In M. J. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield’s handbook of psychotherapy and behavioral change (5th ed., pp. 307–390). New York, NY: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paolacci, G., Chandler, J., & Ipeirotis, P. G. (2010). Running experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Judgment and Decision Making, 5(5), 411–419.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paolacci, G., & Chandler, J. (2014). Inside the Turk: Understanding Mechanical Turk as a participant tool. Psychological Science, 23(3), 184–188.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pederson, P. B., Crethar, H. C., & Carlson, J. (2008). Inclusive cultural empathy: Making relationships central in counseling and psychotherapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Ponterotto, J. G., Casas, J. M., Suzuki, L. A., Alexander, C. M. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of multicultural counseling (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Powe, N. R., & Cooper, L. A. (2004). Disparities in patient experiences, health care processes, and outcomes: The role of patient-provider racial, ethnic, and language concordance. Commonwealth Fund.

    Google Scholar 

  • Phinney, J. S. (1996). When we talk about American ethinic groups, what do we mean? American Psychologist, 51, 918–927.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Propst, L. R., Ostrom, R., Watkins, P., Dean, T., et al. (1992). Comparative efficacy of religious and nonreligious cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of clinical depression in religious individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(1), 94–103.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pyszczynski, T. A., Greenberg, J., & Solomon, S. (2012). In the wake of 9/11: The psychology of terror. W. Ross MacDonald School Resource Services.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pyszczynski, T., Solomon, S., & Greenberg, J. (2003). In the wake of 9/11: The psychology of terror. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10478-000.

  • Redding, R. E. (2019). Client and clinician values in psychotherapy. Unpublished manuscript.

    Google Scholar 

  • Redding, R. E. (2012). Likes attract: The sociopolitical groupthink of (social) psychologists. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(5), 512–515.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Redding, R. E. (2013). Politicized science. Society, 50, 439–446.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Redding, R. E. (2001). Sociopolitical diversity in psychology: The case for pluralism. American Psychologist, 56(3), 205–215.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rokeach, M., & Mezei, L. (1966, Jan. 14). Race and shared belief as factors in social choice. Science, 151, 167–172.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rokeach, M., Smith, P. W., & Evans, R. I. (1960). Two kinds of prejudice or one? In M. Rokeach (Ed.), The open and closed mind (pp. 132–168). New York, NY: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rogers, M. R., & O’Bryon, E. C. (2014). Multicultural training models and curriculum. In F. T. L. Leong, L. Comas-Diaz, G. C. N. Hall, V. C. McLoyd, & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), APA Handbook of multicultural psychology, Volume 2: Applications and training (pp. 659–680). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Rosenbaum, M. E. (1986). The repulsion hypothesis: On the nondevelopment of relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1156–1166.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosik, C. H. (2016). My conversation with a typical opponent of professional therapies that include change. Journal of Human Sexuality, 7, 74–98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosik, C. H. (2014). Same-sex marriage and the boundaries of diversity: Will marriage and family therapy remain inclusive of religious and social conservatives? Marriage & Family Review, 50, 714–737.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosik, C. H., Teraoka, N. K., & Moretto, J. D. (2016). Religiously-based prejudice and self-censorship: Perceptions and experiences among Christian therapists and educators. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 35(1), 52–67.

    Google Scholar 

  • Santero, P. L., Whitehead, N. E., & Ballesteros, D. (2018). Effects of therapy on religious men who have unwanted same-sex attraction. Linacre Quarterly, 1–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Satel, S., & Redding, R. E. (2004). Sociopolitical trends in mental health care: The consumer/survivor movement and multiculturalism. In B. J. Sadock & V. A. Sadock (Eds.), Kaplan and Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (8th ed.) (Vol 1, pp. 644–655). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Watkins.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz, W. (2016). Politics and religion: Psychotherapy’s third rail. Accessed at: http://www.socialjusticesolutions.org/2016/03/25/politics-religion-psychotherapys-third-rail/

  • Sears, D. O., & Henry, P. J. (2003). The origins of symbolic racism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 259–275.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shafranske, E. P. (Ed.). (1996). Religion and the clinical practice of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shafranske, E. P., & Malony, H. N. (1996). Religion and the clinical practice of psychology: A case for inclusion. In E. P. Shafranske (Ed.), Religion and the clinical practice of psychology (p. 561–586). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shapiro, D. N., Chandler, J., & Mueller, P. A. (2013). Using mechanical Turk to study clinical populations. Clinical Psychological Science, 1(2), 213–220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shedler, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic therapy. American Psychologist, 65, 98–109.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shumway, B., & Waldo, M. (2012). Client’s religiosity and expected working alliance with theistic psychotherapists. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4(2), 85–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, S. D., Reynolds, C. A., & Rovnak, A. (2009). A critical analysis of the social advocacy movement in counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 87, 483–491.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spiro, H., Peschel, E., McCrea Curnen, M., & St. James, D. (Eds.). (1996). Empathy and the practice of medicine: Beyond pills and the scalpel. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Strupp, H. H. (1980). Humanism and psychotherapy: A personal statement of the therapist’s essential values. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 26, 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sue, D. W. (1998). In search of cultural competence in psychotherapy and counseling. American Psychologist, 53, 440–448.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sue, D. W., Alsaidi, S., Awad, M. N., Glaeser, E., Calle, C. Z., & Mendez, N. (2019). Disarming racial microaggressions: Microintervention strategies for targets, white allies, and bystanders. American Psychologist, 74(1), 128–142.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A. M. B., Nadal, K. L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271–286.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sue, D. W., Sue, D., Neville, H. A., & Smith, L. (2019). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tesser, A. (1993). The importance of heritability in psychological research: The case of attitudes. Psychological Review, 100(1), 129–142. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.1.129.

  • Tryon, G. S., & Kane, A. S. (1993). Relationship of working alliance to mutual and unilateral termination. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40(1), 33–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity-a supplement to mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vachon, D. O., & Agresti, A. A. (1992). A training proposal to help mental health professionals clarify and manage implicit values in the counseling process. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23(6), 509–514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vasquez, M. J. T. (2007). Cultural difference and the therapeutic alliance: An evidence-based analysis. American Psychologist, 62(8), 878–885.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Verhulst, B., Hatemi, P. K., & Eaves, L. J. (2012). Disentangling the importance of psychological predispositions and social constructions in the organization of American political ideology. Political Psychology, 3(3), 375–393.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ward v. Polite. (2012). 667 F.3d 727.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whaley, A. L., & Davis, K. E. (2007). Cultural competence and evidence-based practice in mental health services: A complementary perspective. American Psychologist, 62(6), 563–574.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whitley, R. (2010). Atheism and mental health. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 18, 190–194.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Woolfolk, R. L. (1998). The cure of souls: Science, values, and psychotherapy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yarhouse, M. A. (2009). The battle regarding sexuality. In N. Cummings, W. O’Donahue, & J. Cummings (Eds.), Psychology? War on religion (pp. 63–94). Phoenix, AZ: Zeig, Tucker & Thiesen.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zilcha-Mano, S. (2017). Is the alliance really therapeutic? Revisiting this question in light of recent research. American Psychologist, 72(4), 311–325.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Richard E. Redding .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Redding, R.E. (2020). Sociopolitical Values: The Neglected Factor in Culturally- Competent Psychotherapy. In: Benuto, L., Duckworth, M., Masuda, A., O'Donohue, W. (eds) Prejudice, Stigma, Privilege, and Oppression. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-35517-3_24

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics