Zabetakis PM. Profiling the hypertensive patient in sports. Clin Sports Med. 1984;3(1):137–52.
Palatini P. Blood pressure behaviour during physical activity. Sports Med. 1988;5(6):353–74.
Palatini P. Exercise haemodynamics in the normotensive and the hypertensive subject. Clin Sci (Lond). 1994;87(3):275–87.
Mitchell JH, Reardon WC, McCloskey DI. Reflex effects on circulation and respiration from contracting skeletal muscle. Am J Phys. 1977;233(3):H374–8.
Rowell LB, Brengelmann GL, Blackmon JR, Bruce RA, Murray JA. Disparities between aortic and peripheral pulse pressures induced by upright exercise and vasomotor changes in man. Circulation. 1968;37(6):954–64.
Radice M, Alli C, Avanzini F, Di Tullio M, Mariotti G, Taioli E, et al. Role of blood pressure response to provocative tests in the prediction of hypertension in adolescents. Eur Heart J. 1985;6(6):490–6.
Palatini P, Pessina AC, Ardigò A, Veronese P, Dal Palù C. Response to some pressor tests in patients with labile and stable hypertension, before and after administration of atenolol. Boll Soc Ital Cardiol. 1977;22(8):1477–84.
Rowell LB. Blood pressure regulation during exercise. Ann Med. 1991;23(3):329–33.
Irving JB, Bruce RA, DeRouen TA. Variations in and significance of systolic pressure during maximal exercise (treadmill) testing. Am J Cardiol. 1977;39(6):841–8.
Levy AM, Tabakin BS, Hanson JS. Hemodynamic responses to graded treadmill exercise in young untreated labile hypertensive patients. Circulation. 1967;35(6):1063–72.
Palatini P, Mos L, Mormino P, Munari L, Del Torre M, Valle F, et al. Intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring in the evaluation of the hypertensive athlete. Eur Heart J. 1990;11(4):348–54.
Bachmann KZR, Riess PJ, Zoloch KA. Blutddrucktelemetrie: kontinuerliche, directe blutdruckmessungen im altag und beim sport. Dts Med Wochenschr. 1970;14:741–7.
Palatini P, Mormino P, Mos L, Di Marco A, Munari L, Del Torre M, et al. Blood pressure changes during physical exercise (the beat phenomenon). J Hypertens Suppl. 1988;6(4):S88–90.
Palatini P, Mos L, Mormino P, Di Marco A, Munari L, Fazio G, et al. Blood pressure changes during running in humans: the “beat” phenomenon. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1989;67(1):52–9.
Palatini P, Mos L, Munari L, Mormino P, Del Torre M, Valle F, et al. Beats modulate blood pressure during running. Am J Hypertens. 1989;2(11 Pt 1):872–4.
Palatini P, Bongiovì S, Mario L, Schiraldi C, Mos L, Pessina AC. Above-normal left ventricular systolic performance during exercise in young subjects with mild hypertension. Eur Heart J. 1995;16(2):232–42.
Fagard R, Aubert A, Staessen J, Eynde EV, Vanhees L, Amery A. Cardiac structure and function in cyclists and runners. Comparative echocardiographic study. Br Heart J. 1984;52(2):124–9.
Chaney RH, Arndt S. Predictability of blood pressure response to isometric stress. Am J Cardiol. 1983;51(5):787–90.
Jones RI, Lahiri A, Cashman PM, Dore C, Raftery EB. Left ventricular function during isometric hand grip and cold stress in normal subjects. Br Heart J. 1986;55(3):246–52.
Sullivan J, Hanson P, Rahko PS, Folts JD. Continuous measurement of left ventricular performance during and after maximal isometric deadlift exercise. Circulation. 1992;85(4):1406–13.
Bezucha GR, Lenser MC, Hanson PG, Nagle FJ. Comparison of hemodynamic responses to static and dynamic exercise. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1982;53(6):1589–93.
Seals DR, Washburn RA, Hanson PG, Painter PL, Nagle FJ. Increased cardiovascular response to static contraction of larger muscle groups. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1983;54(2):434–7.
Seals DR, Hanson PG, Washburn RA, Painter PL, Ward A, Nagle FJ. Cardiovascular response to static contraction in borderline hypertension. Clin Cardiol. 1985;8(6):348–52.
McCloskey DI, Streatfeild KA. Muscular reflex stimuli to the cardiovascular system during isometric contractions of muscle groups of different mass. J Physiol. 1975;250(2):431–41.
Silke B, Watt SJ, Taylor SH. The circulatory response to lifting and carrying and its modification by beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Int J Cardiol. 1984;6(4):527–36.
MacDougall JD, Tuxen D, Sale DG, Moroz JR, Sutton JR. Arterial blood pressure response to heavy resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1985;58(3):785–90.
Palatini P, Mos L, Munari L, Valle F, Del Torre M, Rossi A, et al. Blood pressure changes during heavy-resistance exercise. J Hypertens Suppl. 1989;7(6):S72–3.
Hamilton WFWR, jr HHT. Arterial cerebrospinal and venous pressures in man during cough and strain. Am J Phys. 1944;141:42–50.
Fleck SJ, Dean LS. Resistance-training experience and the pressor response during resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1987;63(1):116–20.
Poliner LR, Dehmer GJ, Lewis SE, Parkey RW, Blomqvist CG, Willerson JT. Left ventricular performance in normal subjects: a comparison of the responses to exercise in the upright and supine positions. Circulation. 1980;62(3):528–34.
Steingart RM, Wexler J, Slagle S, Scheuer J. Radionuclide ventriculographic responses to graded supine and upright exercise: critical role of the Frank-Starling mechanism at submaximal exercise. Am J Cardiol. 1984;53(11):1671–7.
Fisman EZ, Frank AG, Ben-Ari E, Kessler G, Pines A, Drory Y, et al. Altered left ventricular volume and ejection fraction responses to supine dynamic exercise in athletes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990;15(3):582–8.
ASTRAND I. Aerobic work capacity in men and women with special reference to age. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 1960;49(169):1–92.
Adams KF, Vincent LM, McAllister SM, el-Ashmawy H, Sheps DS. The influence of age and gender on left ventricular response to supine exercise in asymptomatic normal subjects. Am Heart J. 1987;113(3):732–42.
Julius S, Amery A, Whitlock LS, Conway J. Influence of age on the hemodynamic response to exercise. Circulation. 1967;36(2):222–30.
Younis LT, Melin JA, Robert AR, Detry JM. Influence of age and sex on left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction during upright exercise in normal subjects. Eur Heart J. 1990;11(10):916–24.
Mann DL, Denenberg BS, Gash AK, Makler PT, Bove AA. Effects of age on ventricular performance during graded supine exercise. Am Heart J. 1986;111(1):108–15.
Bongiovì S, Palatini P, Macor F, Visentin P, Pessina AC. Age and blood-pressure-related changes in left ventricular diastolic filling. J Hypertens Suppl. 1992;10(2):S25–30.
Ginzton LE, Conant R, Brizendine M, Laks MM. Effect of long-term high intensity aerobic training on left ventricular volume during maximal upright exercise. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1989;14(2):364–71.
Tomai F, Ciavolella M, Gaspardone A, De Fazio A, Basso EG, Giannitti C, et al. Peak exercise left ventricular performance in normal subjects and in athletes assessed by first-pass radionuclide angiography. Am J Cardiol. 1992;70(4):531–5.
Fagard R, Van den Broeke C, Amery A. Left ventricular dynamics during exercise in elite marathon runners. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1989;14(1):112–8.
Vanoverschelde JL, Younis LT, Melin JA, Vanbutsele R, Leclercq B, Robert AR, et al. Prolonged exercise induces left ventricular dysfunction in healthy subjects. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1991;70(3):1356–63.
Seals DR, Rogers MA, Hagberg JM, Yamamoto C, Cryer PE, Ehsani AA. Left ventricular dysfunction after prolonged strenuous exercise in healthy subjects. Am J Cardiol. 1988;61(11):875–9.
Upton MT, Rerych SK, Roeback JR, Newman GE, Douglas JM, Wallace AG, et al. Effect of brief and prolonged exercise on left ventricular function. Am J Cardiol. 1980;45(6):1154–60.
Hartford M, Wikstrand JC, Wallentin I, Ljungman SM, Berglund GL. Left ventricular wall stress and systolic function in untreated primary hypertension. Hypertension. 1985;7(1):97–104.
Aurigemma GP, Silver KH, Priest MA, Gaasch WH. Geometric changes allow normal ejection fraction despite depressed myocardial shortening in hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26(1):195–202.
Palatini P, Visentin P, Nicolosi G, Mione V, Stritoni P, Michieletto M, et al. Endocardial versus midwall measurement of left ventricular function in mild hypertension: an insight from the Harvest Study. J Hypertens. 1996;14(8):1011–7.
Palatini P, Visentin P, Mormino P, Pietra M, Piccolo D, Cozzutti E, et al. Left ventricular performance in the early stages of systemic hypertension. HARVEST Study Group Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording Venetia Study. Am J Cardiol. 1998;81(4):418–23.
Shimizu G, Hirota Y, Kita Y, Kawamura K, Saito T, Gaasch WH. Left ventricular midwall mechanics in systemic arterial hypertension. Myocardial function is depressed in pressure-overload hypertrophy. Circulation. 1991;83(5):1676–84.
de Simone G, Devereux RB, Roman MJ, Ganau A, Saba PS, Alderman MH, et al. Assessment of left ventricular function by the midwall fractional shortening/end-systolic stress relation in human hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994;23(6):1444–51.
Palatini P, Frigo G, Visentin P, Mario L, Mormino P, Pessina AC. Left ventricular contractile performance in the early stage of hypertension in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;85(1-2):118–24.
Huai P, Xun H, Reilly KH, Wang Y, Ma W, Xi B. Physical activity and risk of hypertension: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Hypertension. 2013;62(6):1021–6.
Liu X, Zhang D, Liu Y, Sun X, Han C, Wang B, et al. Dose-response association between physical activity and incident hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Hypertension. 2017;69(5):813–20.
Haslam DW, James WP. Obesity. Lancet. 2005;366(9492):1197–209.
Blair SN, Goodyear NN, Gibbons LW, Cooper KH. Physical fitness and incidence of hypertension in healthy normotensive men and women. JAMA. 1984;252(4):487–90.
Carnethon MR, Evans NS, Church TS, Lewis CE, Schreiner PJ, Jacobs DR, et al. Joint associations of physical activity and aerobic fitness on the development of incident hypertension: coronary artery risk development in young adults. Hypertension. 2010;56(1):49–55.
Williams PT. A cohort study of incident hypertension in relation to changes in vigorous physical activity in men and women. J Hypertens. 2008;26(6):1085–93.
Sawada S, Tanaka H, Funakoshi M, Shindo M, Kono S, Ishiko T. Five year prospective study on blood pressure and maximal oxygen uptake. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1993;20(7-8):483–7.
Fagard RH, Cornelissen VA. Effect of exercise on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007;14(1):12–7.
Cornelissen VA, Fagard RH. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension. 2005;46(4):667–75.
Cornelissen VA, Smart NA. Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2(1):e004473.
Costa EC, Hay JL, Kehler DS, Boreskie KF, Arora RC, Umpierre D, et al. Effects of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on blood pressure in adults with pre- to established hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Sports Med. 2018;48(9):2127–42.
Cornelissen VA, Fagard RH, Coeckelberghs E, Vanhees L. Impact of resistance training on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Hypertension. 2011;58(5):950–8.
MacDonald HV, Johnson BT, Huedo-Medina TB, Livingston J, Forsyth KC, Kraemer WJ, et al. Dynamic resistance training as stand-alone antihypertensive lifestyle therapy: a meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(10)
López-Valenciano A, Ruiz-Pérez I, Ayala F, Sánchez-Meca J, Vera-Garcia FJ. Updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the role of isometric resistance training for resting blood pressure management in adults. J Hypertens. 2019;
Inder JD, Carlson DJ, Dieberg G, McFarlane JR, Hess NC, Smart NA. Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management: a systematic review and meta-analysis to optimize benefit. Hypertens Res. 2016;39(2):88–94.
Igarashi Y, Nogami Y. The effect of regular aquatic exercise on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018;25(2):190–9.
Xiong X, Wang P, Li S, Zhang Y, Li X. Effect of Baduanjin exercise for hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Maturitas. 2015;80(4):370–8.
Lauche R, Peng W, Ferguson C, Cramer H, Frawley J, Adams J, et al. Efficacy of Tai Chi and qigong for the prevention of stroke and stroke risk factors: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(45):e8517.
Cramer H, Haller H, Lauche R, Steckhan N, Michalsen A, Dobos G. A systematic review and meta-analysis of yoga for hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2014;27(9):1146–51.
Conceição LS, Neto MG, do Amaral MA, Martins-Filho PR, Oliveira Carvalho V. Effect of dance therapy on blood pressure and exercise capacity of individuals with hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2016;220:553–7.
Pescatello LS, MacDonald HV, Ash GI, Lamberti LM, Farquhar WB, Arena R, et al. Assessing the existing professional exercise recommendations for hypertension: a review and recommendations for future research priorities. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015;90(6):801–12.
Cornelissen VA, Buys R, Smart NA. Endurance exercise beneficially affects ambulatory blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hypertens. 2013;31(4):639–48.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, et al. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42(6):1206–52.
Whelton SP, Chin A, Xin X, He J. Effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(7):493–503.
Igarashi Y, Akazawa N, Maeda S. Regular aerobic exercise and blood pressure in East Asians: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2018;40(4):378–89.
Kelley GA, Kelley KS. Aerobic exercise and resting blood pressure in women: a meta-analytic review of controlled clinical trials. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 1999;8(6):787–803.
Tully MA, Cupples ME, Hart ND, McEneny J, McGlade KJ, Chan WS, et al. Randomised controlled trial of home-based walking programmes at and below current recommended levels of exercise in sedentary adults. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007;61(9):778–83.
Jennings G, Nelson L, Nestel P, Esler M, Korner P, Burton D, et al. The effects of changes in physical activity on major cardiovascular risk factors, hemodynamics, sympathetic function, and glucose utilization in man: a controlled study of four levels of activity. Circulation. 1986;73(1):30–40.
Pescatello LS, MacDonald HV, Lamberti L, Johnson BT. Exercise for hypertension: a prescription update integrating existing recommendations with emerging research. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2015;17(11):87.
Cornelissen VA, Fagard RH. Exercise intensity and postexercise hypotension. J Hypertens. 2004;22(10):1859–61.
Kenney MJ, Seals DR. Postexercise hypotension. Key features, mechanisms, and clinical significance. Hypertension. 1993;22(5):653–64.
Cornelissen VA, Arnout J, Holvoet P, Fagard RH. Influence of exercise at lower and higher intensity on blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors at older age. J Hypertens. 2009;27(4):753–62.
Eicher JD, Maresh CM, Tsongalis GJ, Thompson PD, Pescatello LS. The additive blood pressure lowering effects of exercise intensity on post-exercise hypotension. Am Heart J. 2010;160(3):513–20.
Pescatello LS, Guidry MA, Blanchard BE, Kerr A, Taylor AL, Johnson AN, et al. Exercise intensity alters postexercise hypotension. J Hypertens. 2004;22(10):1881–8.
Cononie CC, Graves JE, Pollock ML, Phillips MI, Sumners C, Hagberg JM. Effect of exercise training on blood pressure in 70- to 79-yr-old men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23(4):505-11.
Collier SR, Kanaley JA, Carhart R, Frechette V, Tobin MM, Hall AK, et al. Effect of 4 weeks of aerobic or resistance exercise training on arterial stiffness, blood flow and blood pressure in pre- and stage-1 hypertensives. J Hum Hypertens. 2008;22(10):678–86.
Casonatto J, Goessler KF, Cornelissen VA, Cardoso JR, Polito MD. The blood pressure-lowering effect of a single bout of resistance exercise: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23(16):1700–14.
Brook RD, Appel LJ, Rubenfire M, Ogedegbe G, Bisognano JD, Elliott WJ, et al. Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: a scientific statement from the american heart association. Hypertension. 2013;61(6):1360–83.
Carlson DJ, Inder J, Palanisamy SK, McFarlane JR, Dieberg G, Smart NA. The efficacy of isometric resistance training utilizing handgrip exercise for blood pressure management: a randomized trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(52):e5791.
Colado JC, Triplett NT, Tella V, Saucedo P, Abellán J. Effects of aquatic resistance training on health and fitness in postmenopausal women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;106(1):113–22.
Arca EA, Martinelli B, Martin LC, Waisberg CB, Franco RJ. Aquatic exercise is as effective as dry land training to blood pressure reduction in postmenopausal hypertensive women. Physiother Res Int. 2014;19(2):93–8.
Casale PN, Devereux RB, Milner M, Zullo G, Harshfield GA, Pickering TG, et al. Value of echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular mass in predicting cardiovascular morbid events in hypertensive men. Ann Intern Med. 1986;105(2):173–8.
Baglivo HP, Fabregues G, Burrieza H, Esper RC, Talarico M, Esper RJ. Effect of moderate physical training on left ventricular mass in mild hypertensive persons. Hypertension. 1990;15(2 Suppl):I153–6.
Kokkinos PF, Narayan P, Colleran JA, Pittaras A, Notargiacomo A, Reda D, et al. Effects of regular exercise on blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in African-American men with severe hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(22):1462–7.
Zanettini R, Bettega D, Agostoni O, Ballestra B, del Rosso G, di Michele R, et al. Exercise training in mild hypertension: effects on blood pressure, left ventricular mass and coagulation factor VII and fibrinogen. Cardiology. 1997;88(5):468–73.
Palatini P, Visentin P, Dorigatti F, Guarnieri C, Santonastaso M, Cozzio S, et al. Regular physical activity prevents development of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2009;30(2):225–32.
Boman K, Gerdts E, Wachtell K, Dahlöf B, Nieminen MS, Olofsson M, et al. Exercise and cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients in relation to structure and function of left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2009;16(2):242–8.
Hinderliter A, Sherwood A, Gullette EC, Babyak M, Waugh R, Georgiades A, et al. Reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy after exercise and weight loss in overweight patients with mild hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(12):1333–9.
Reid CM, Dart AM, Dewar EM, Jennings GL. Interactions between the effects of exercise and weight loss on risk factors, cardiovascular haemodynamics and left ventricular structure in overweight subjects. J Hypertens. 1994;12(3):291–301.
Palatini P. Cardiovascular effects of exercise in young hypertensives. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33(9):683–90.
Thompson PD, Buchner D, Pina IL, Balady GJ, Williams MA, Marcus BH, et al. Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention) and the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity). Circulation. 2003;107(24):3109–16.
Pescatello LS, Bairos L, Vanheest JL, Maresh CM, Rodriguez NR, Moyna NM, et al. Postexercise hypotension differs between white and black women. Am Heart J. 2003;145(2):364–70.
Palatini P, Bratti P, Palomba D, Saladini F, Zanatta N, Maraglino G. Regular physical activity attenuates the blood pressure response to public speaking and delays the development of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2010;28(6):1186–93.
Laterza MC, de Matos LD, Trombetta IC, Braga AM, Roveda F, Alves MJ, et al. Exercise training restores baroreflex sensitivity in never-treated hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2007;49(6):1298–306.
Fagard RH. Athletes with systemic hypertension. Cardiol Clin. 2007;25(3):441–8vii.
Laukkanen JA, Khan H, Kurl S, Willeit P, Karppi J, Ronkainen K, et al. Left ventricular mass and the risk of sudden cardiac death: a population-based study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(6):e001285.
Black HR, Sica D, Ferdinand K, White WB. American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee of Council on Clinical Cardiology CoCDiY, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology, and American College of Cardiology. Eligibility and disqualification recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities: task force 6: hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology. Circulation. 2015;132(22):e298–302.
Niebauer J, Börjesson M, Carre F, Caselli S, Palatini P, Quattrini F, et al. Recommendations for participation in competitive sports of athletes with arterial hypertension: a position statement from the sports cardiology section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC). Eur Heart J. 2018;39(40):3664–71.
Palatini P. Exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise: pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical relevance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1998;38(1):1–9.
Hansen D, Niebauer J, Cornelissen V, Barna O, Neunhäuserer D, Stettler C, et al. Exercise prescription in patients with different combinations of cardiovascular disease risk factors: a consensus statement from the EXPERT working group. Sports Med. 2018;48(8):1781–97.
Borjesson M, Urhausen A, Kouidi E, Dugmore D, Sharma S, Halle M, et al. Cardiovascular evaluation of middle-aged/senior individuals engaged in leisure-time sport activities: position stand from the sections of exercise physiology and sports cardiology of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2011;18(3):446–58.
Sharman JE, La Gerche A, Coombes JS. Exercise and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2015;28(2):147–58.
AOaCftACRGTAaL-LTtPHA T. Major outcomes in moderately hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive patients randomized to pravastatin vs usual care: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT). JAMA. 2002;288(23):2998–3007.
Naci H, Ioannidis JP. Comparative effectiveness of exercise and drug interventions on mortality outcomes: metaepidemiological study. BMJ. 2013;347:f5577.