Embedding to Reference t-SNE Space Addresses Batch Effects in Single-Cell Classification
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Dimensionality reduction techniques, such as t-SNE, can construct informative visualizations of high-dimensional data. When working with multiple data sets, a straightforward application of these methods often fails; instead of revealing underlying classes, the resulting visualizations expose data set-specific clusters. To circumvent these batch effects, we propose an embedding procedure that uses a t-SNE visualization constructed on a reference data set as a scaffold for embedding new data points. Each data instance in the secondary data is embedded independently, and does not change the reference embedding. This prevents any interactions between instances in the secondary data and implicitly mitigates batch effects. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by analyzing six recently published single-cell gene expression data sets with up to tens of thousands of cells and thousands of genes. The batch effects in our studies are particularly strong as the data comes from different institutions and was obtained using different experimental protocols. The visualizations constructed by our proposed approach are cleared of batch effects, and the cells from secondary data sets correctly co-cluster with cells of the same type from the primary data.
KeywordsBatch effects Embedding t-SNE Visualization Single-cell transcriptomics Data integration Domain adaptation
This work was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency Program Grant P2-0209, and by the BioPharm.SI project supported from European Regional Development Fund and the Slovenian Ministry of Education, Science and Sport. We would also like to thank Dmitry Kobak for many helpful discussions on t-SNE.
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