Cyber Security for Voltage Control of Distribution Systems Under Data Falsification Attacks

Part of the Power Electronics and Power Systems book series (PEPS)


In this chapter, we discuss cyber security issues that can arise in the voltage regulation of distribution systems. As the amount of distributed generation rapidly increases, voltage regulation along the distribution lines becomes more complicated. This change in the system has prompted the use of more voltage measurements collected over networks for accurate monitoring and control. Here, we provide an overview of our recent research on false data injection attacks on voltage measurements transmitted by sensors to a centralized controller. Our approach is to first introduce an attack detection algorithm and then enhance the security level by a resilient controller that is capable of performing the regulation in the presence of attacks by utilizing the detection results. We illustrate our methods by simulation studies on a realistic, small-scale distribution system.



The authors are grateful to Yusuke Aoki, Yasunori Isozaki, Mizuki Onogawa, and Atsushi Suzuki for their help in the course of this research.


  1. 1.
    W. Ananduta, J.M. Maestre, C. Ocampo-Martinez, H. Ishii, Resilient distributed energy management for systems of interconnected microgrids, in Proceedings of 57th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (2018), pp. 6159–6164Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. Aoki, S. Yoshizawa, Y. Fujimoto, H. Ishii, I. Ono, T. Onoda, Y. Hayashi, A study of cyber attack scenarios against large-scale distribution systems based on centralized voltage regulation (in Japanese), in Proceedings of SICE Symposium on Systems and Information (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. Chakhchoukh, H. Ishii, Coordinated cyber-attacks on the measurement function in hybrid state estimation. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 30, 2487–2497 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Chakhchoukh, H. Ishii, Enhancing robustness to cyber-attacks in power systems through multiple least trimmed squares state estimations. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 31, 4395–4405 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y. Chakhchoukh, V. Vittal, G.T. Heydt, H. Ishii, LTS-based robust hybrid SE integrating correlation. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 32, 3127–3135 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S.M. Dibaji, H. Ishii, R. Tempo, Resilient randomized quantized consensus. IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 63, 2508–2522 (2018)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.E. Elkhatib, R. El-Shatshat, M.M.A. Salama, Novel coordinated voltage control for smart distribution networks with DG. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2, 598–605 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H.E. Farag, E.F. El-Saadany, R. Seethapathy, A two ways communication-based distributed control for voltage regulation in smart distribution feeders. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 3, 271–281 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Govindarasu, P.W. Bauer (guest editors), Special section on keeping the smart grid safe. IEEE Power Energy Mag. 10(1) (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Hahn, A. Ashok, S. Sridhar, M. Govindarasu, Cyber-physical security testbeds: architecture, application, and evaluation for smart grid. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 4(2), 847–855 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y. Hanai, Y. Hayashi, J. Matsuki, Voltage control for loop distribution system with renewable energy sources, in Proceedings of International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.M. Hendrickx, K.H. Johansson, R.M. Jungers, H. Sandberg, K.C. Sou, Efficient computations of a security index for false data attacks in power networks. IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 59, 3194–3208 (2014)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y. Isozaki, S. Yoshizawa, Y. Fujimoto, H. Ishii, I. Ono, T. Onoda, Y. Hayashi, Detection of cyber attacks against voltage control in distribution power grids with PVs. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 7, 1824–1835 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    O. Kosut, Malicious data attacks against dynamic state estimation in the presence of random noise, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (2013), pp. 261–264Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    O. Kosut, L. Jia, R. Thomas, L. Tong, Malicious data attacks on the smart grid. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2, 645–658 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H.J. LeBlanc, H. Zhang, X. Koutsoukos, S. Sundaram, Resilient asymptotic consensus in robust networks. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 31, 766–781 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T.G. Lewis, Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security: Defending a Networked Nation, 2nd edn. (Wiley, Hoboken, 2015)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y. Liu, P. Ning, M. Reiter, False data injection attacks against state estimation in electric power grids. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur. 14, 1–33 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    N.A. Lynch, Distributed Algorithms (Morgan Kaufmann, Burlington, 1996)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Ma, A. Teixeira, J. van den Berg, P. Palensky, Voltage control in distributed generation under measurement falsification attacks, in Proceedings of 20th IFAC World Congress (2017), pp. 8379–8384Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.A. Maronna, R.D. Martin, V.J. Yohai, Robust Statistics: Theory and Methods (Wiley, Hoboken, 2006)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y. Mo, T.H. Kim, K. Brancik, D. Dickinson, H. Lee, A. Perrig, B. Sinopoli, Cyber-physical security of a smart grid infrastructure. Proc. IEEE 100(1), 195–209 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Nishino, H. Ishii, Distributed detection of cyber attacks and faults for power systems, in Proceedings of 18th IFAC World Congress (2014), pp. 11932–11937Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Onogawa, S. Yoshizawa, Y. Fujimoto, H. Ishii, I. Ono, T. Onoda, Y. Hayashi, Enhancing security for voltage control of distribution systems under data falsification attacks, in Proceedings of American Control Conference (2019)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. Senjyu, Y. Miyazato, A. Yona, N. Urasaki, T. Funabashi, Optimal distribution voltage control and coordination with distributed generation. IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 23, 1236–1242 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Sou, H. Sandberg, K.H. Johansson, Electric power network security analysis via minimum cut relaxation, in Proceedings of 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (2011), pp. 4054–4059Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Teixeira, G. Dán, H. Sandberg, R. Berthier, R. Bobba, A. Valdes, Security of smart distribution grids: data integrity attacks on integrated Volt/VAR control and countermeasures, in Proceedings of American Control Conference (2014), pp. 4372–4378Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    P. Velarde, J.M. Maestre, H. Ishii, R.R.Negenborn, Vulnerabilities in Lagrange-based distributed model predictive control. Optimal Control Appl. Methods 39, 601–621 (2018)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    V. Venkataramanan, A. Srivastava, A. Hahn, Real-time co-simulation testbed for microgrid cyber-physical analysis, in Proceedings of Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES) (2016), pp. 1–6Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R.A. Walling, R. Saint, R.C. Dugan, J. Burke, Summary of distributed resources impact on power delivery systems. IEEE Trans. Power Delivery 23, 1636–1644 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    W. Wang, Z. Lu, Cyber security in the smart grid: survey and challenges. Comput. Netw. 57(5), 1344–1371 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    I. Watanabe, K. Masutomi, I. Ono, Robust meter placement against false data injection attacks on power system state estimation, in Proceedings of ICONIP. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8226 (Springer, Berlin, 2013), pp. 569–576Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    T. Yardley, R. Berthier, D. Nicol, W.H. Sanders, Smart grid protocol testing through cyber-physical testbeds, in Proceedings of IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT) (2013), pp. 1–6Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Yoshizawa, Y. Hayashi, M. Tsuji, E. Kamiya, Centralized voltage control method of load ratio control transformer and step voltage regulator for bank fault restoration, in Proceedings of 3rd IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceTokyo Institute of TechnologyYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Advanced Collaborative Research Organization for Smart Society (ACROSS)Waseda UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Industrial and Systems EngineeringCollege of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin UniversitySagamihara-shiJapan
  4. 4.Department of Electrical Engineering and BioscienceWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations