Advertisement

Learning a Language of Sexuality

Chapter
  • 489 Downloads
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Language, Gender and Sexuality book series (PSLGS)

Abstract

This chapter examines how people learned discretion, responses to surveillance, and other linguistic practices expressing messages about sexual sameness before Stonewall. Direct mentoring was helpful, and so was overhearing (Bubel in Journal of Pragmatics 40:55–71, 2008), instances where the learner gained new information while observing, as a third-party observing language use between others. Print resources were helpful, whether dedicated to homosexual interests or written for a general audience and open to a sexualized reading. Enlistment in the US military and women’s softball playing and spectatorship offered contexts that encouraged language learning through immersion and through translanguaging, incorporating new knowledge about sexual language into their existing linguistic knowledge base, producing “confluences of scripts” in various forms (Provencher in Gay French: Globalization, Language and Sexual Citizenship in France, Ashgate, Aldershot, 2017) related to sexual sameness.

Bibliography

  1. ———. 1936. Degenerates of Greenwich Village. Current Psychology and Psychoanalysis. December: [no page numbers cited]. Reprinted in Duberman, Martin. 1986. About Time: Exploring the Gay Past, 132–134. New York: Sea Horse Press.Google Scholar
  2. ———. 1942a. Speaking of pictures: Guess what’s going on here? Men in Khaki take over “The Women”. LIFE, December 21, 14–16.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 1942b. WAACS start training for world-wide duty. Los Angeles Times, July 21, Section 1, p. 5.Google Scholar
  4. ———. c. 1943. About Face! Washington, DC: Special Services Division, U.S. Army Service Forces.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 1964. The Lavender Lexicon: Dictionary of Gay Words and Phrases. San Francisco: Strait and Associates.Google Scholar
  6. Adair, Peter. 1977. Word Is Out. New York: New Yorker Films.Google Scholar
  7. Amsterdam, Morey. 1942. If men acted in Barer shops as women do in beauty parlors. In At Ease Vol. I. Comedy Sketches, ed. The Writers and Material Committee, Camp Shows. Washington, DC: U.S.O. Camp Shows Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Army Special Forces. n.d. Little Egypt. It’s the G.I. State Fair. Washington, DC: Soldier Shows Folio 24: 23–24.Google Scholar
  9. Ashkenazi, Danny. 2015. The Speakeasy Glossary—Queer Slang of the Prohibition Era. https://dannyashkenasi.com/2015/08/26/the-speakeasy-glossary-queer-slang-of-the-prohibition-era/. Posted August 26, 2015. Site visited February 12, 2019.
  10. Atkins, Gary. 2003. Gay Seattle: Stories of Exile and Belonging. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  11. Baynham, Mike, and Tong King Lee. n.d. Translanguaging as a queer practice. Unpublished ms.Google Scholar
  12. Berlant, Lauren. 2011. Affect in the present. In Cruel Optimism, 1–21. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bérubé, Alan. 1990. Coming Out Under Fire. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  14. Block, Alan W., and Don Hecht. 1952. Walkin After Midnight. New York: Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC. https://www.google.com/search?q=walkin+after+midnight+lyrics&oq=wal&aqs=chrome.0.69i59j69i57j0l4.2486j0j8&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8.
  15. Bolzenius, Sandra M. 2018. Glory in Their Spirit. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brock, Lilyan. 1952. Queer Patterns. New York: Eton/Avon.Google Scholar
  17. Bronski, Michael. 2003. Introduction. In Pulp Friction: Uncovering the Golden Age of Gay Male Pulps, 1–21. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.Google Scholar
  18. Brown, Ricardo J. 2001. The Evening Crowd at Kirmser’s. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  19. Browne, Lois. 1992. Girls of Summer. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  20. Bubel, Claudia. 2008. Film audiences as overhearers. Journal of Pragmatics 40: 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Butler, Judith. 1991. Imitation and gender insubordination. In Inside Out: Lesbian Theories, Gay Theories, ed. Diana Fuss, 13–31. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Buring, Daneel. 1997. Lesbian and Gay Memphis: Building Communities Beyond the Magnolia Curtain. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Burns, John Horne. 1947. The Gallery. New York: New York Review of Books.Google Scholar
  24. Cahn, Susan. 1993. From the “muscle moll” to the “butch” ball player: Mannishness, lesbianism and homophobia in U.S. women’s sport. Feminist Studies 19 (2): 343–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cahn, Susan K. 2003. Coming On Strong: Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-Cenntury Women’s Sport. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cain, James M. 1934. The Postman Always Rings Twice. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  27. Caldwell-O’Keefe, Jennifer Riley. 2010. Whose Nation Is It Anyway: Performing “G.I. American” Through World War II Soldier Shows. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Theater Studies, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara.Google Scholar
  28. Cashman, Holly. 2018. Queer, Latinx, and Bilingual: Narrative Resources in the Negotiation of Identities. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Cauley, Catherine. 2015. Queering the WAC. Unpublished MA Thesis, Department of History, University of New Orleans, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  30. Chauncey, George. 1994. Gay New York. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  31. Cory, Donald Webster. 1951. Drop another nickel in. In The Homosexual in America, 120–128. New York: Greenberg.Google Scholar
  32. Costello, John. 1985. Virtue Under Fire: How WWII Changed Our Social and Sexual Attitudes. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  33. Craighill, Margaret D., M.D. 1996. The women’s army corps. In Neuropsychiatry in World War II. 16/31-17/31. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History. http://History.am.edd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/NeuropsychiatryinWWII/chapter15.htm. Site visited January 21, 2017.
  34. Davis, Allen F. 1973. American Heroine: The Life and Legend of Jane Adams. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Dinshaw, Carolyn. 2012. How soon is now? In How Soon Is Now? Medieval Texts, Amateur Readers and the Queerness of Time, 1–39. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Elkin, Henry. 1946. Aggressive and erotic tendencies in Army life. American Journal of Sociology 51 (5): 408–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Enke, Anne. 2007. Finding the Movement: Sexuality, Contested Space and Feminist Activism. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Estes, Steve. 2013. The greatest generation. In Ask & Tell: Gay & Lesbian Veterans Speak Out, 5–28. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  39. Farmer, Brett 2000. Fantasmic escapades: Gay spectatorship and queer negotiations of the Hollywood musical. In Spectacular Passions: Cinema, Fantasy, Gay Male Spectatorship, 69–110. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Franzen, Tricia. 1993. Differences and identities: Feminism and the Albuquerque Lesbian community. Signs 18 (4): 891–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Freud, Sigmund. 2017. Mourning and melancholia [orig. Trauer und Melancholie]. Internationale Zeitschrift für Ärztliche Psychoanalyse 4 (6): 288–301.Google Scholar
  42. Forrest, Katherine V. 2005. Introduction. In Lesbian Pulp Fiction: The Sexually Intrepid World of Lesbian Paperback Novels 1950–1965, ix–xix. San Francisco: Cleis Press.Google Scholar
  43. Gallico, Paul. 1936. Women in sports should look beautiful. Vogue, June 15, 1936. Condensed in Readers Digest, 29 (August): 12–14.Google Scholar
  44. Garber, Eric. 1989. A spectacle in color: The lesbian and gay subculture of jazz age Harlem. In Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Lesbian and Gay Past, ed. Martin Bauml Duberman, Martha Vicinus, and George Chauncey, 318–331. New York: New American Library.Google Scholar
  45. García, Ofelia. 2009. Education, multilingualism and translanguaging in the 21st century. In Multilingual Education for Social Justice: Globalising the Local, ed. Ajit Mohanty, Minati Panda, Robert Phillipson, and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, 128–145. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan.Google Scholar
  46. Gore, Dorothee. 1944. WAC Autograph book. Dorothee Gore Papers, Box 3, Folder 12, Mss. Col. 4799, Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library.Google Scholar
  47. Grahn, Judy. 1984. Another Mother Tongue: Gay Words, Gay Worlds. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  48. Green, Jesse. 2007. Tolstoy was right: Flop musicals are all unique. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/08/theater/08gree.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. Site visited June 20, 2013.
  49. Greenberg, Robert. 2010. The Music of Richard Wagner. Chantilly, VA: The Great Courses.Google Scholar
  50. Greenspan, Lieut. Herbert, and Comdr. John D. Campbell. 1945. The homosexual as a personality type. American Journal of Psychiatry 101: 682–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hagerty, Marilyn E. 1998. Patriot or prostitute? Sexual discourses, print media and American women during World War II. Journal of Women’s History 10 (2): 112–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Halberstam, J. 1998. An introduction to female masculinity: Masculinity without men. In Female Masculinity, 1–44. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  53. ———. 2005. Queer temporalities and post-modern geographies. In In a Queer Time and Place: Transgender Bodies, Subcultural Lives, 22–45. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Halliday, M.A.K. 1978. Language as social semiotic. In Language as Social Semiotic, 108–127. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  55. Hampf, M. Michaela. 2004. “Dykes” or “whores”: Sexuality and the Women’s Army Corps in the United States during World War II. Women’s Studies International Forum 27: 13–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hampf, M. Michaela. 2010. Release A Man for Combat: The Women’s Army Corps During World War II. Köln: Böhlau.Google Scholar
  57. Helms, Alan. 1995. Young Man from the Provinces. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  58. Holt, Lt. Col. Birge and Capt. Ruby Herman. 1944. Report from Lt. Col. Birge Holt and Capt. Ruby Herman. Inspector General’s Office to Acting Inspector General. Subject: Investigations of Conditions at the 3rd WAC Training Center, Ft. Oglethorpe, GA. RG 159. Unpublished document, US Department of the Army, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  59. Howard, John. 1999. Men Like That. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  60. Hurston, Zora Neale. 1933. Characteristics of Negro expression. In Negro: An Anthology, ed. Nancy Cunard, 24–31. New York: Frederick Ungar.Google Scholar
  61. Janis, Irwin L. 1945. Psychodynamic aspects of adjustment to Army life. Psychiatry 8: 159–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Johnson, David K. 1997. The kids of Fairytown: Gay male culture on Chicago’s near north side in the 1930’s. In Creating a Place for Ourselves, ed. Brett Beemyn, 97–118. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Kaiser, Charles. 1997. The Gay Metropolis. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  64. Katz, Jonathan Ned. 1983. Lisa Ben. In Gay/Lesbian Almanac: A New Documentary, 618–628. New York: Colophon Books.Google Scholar
  65. Kennedy, Elizabeth Lapovsky. 1996. “But we would never talk about it”: The structures of lesbian discretion in South Dakota, 1928–1933. In Inventing Lesbian Cultures in America, ed. Ellen Lewin, 15–39. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  66. Kennedy, Elizabeth Lapovsky, and Madeline Davis. 1993. Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold: The History of a Lesbian Community. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  67. Koestenbaum, Wayne. 1993. The Queen’s Throat: Opera, Homosexuality and the Mystery of Desire. New York: Poseidon Press.Google Scholar
  68. Larsen, Nella. 1929. Passing. New York: Alfred Knopf.Google Scholar
  69. Leap, William L. 1996. Gay English in a “desert of nothing”: Language and gay socialization. In Word’s Out, 125–139. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  70. ———. 2003. Language and gendered modernity. In The Handbook of Language and Gender, ed. Janet Holmes and Miriam Meyerhoff, 401–422. Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  71. Legman, Gershon. 1941. The language of homosexuality: An American glossary. In Sex Variants: A Study of Homosexual Patterns, II, 1149–1179. New York: Paul V. Hoeber.Google Scholar
  72. Li Wei. 2016. New Chinglish and the post-multilingualism challenge: Translanguaging ELF in China. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca 5 (1): 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Li Wei and Hua Zhu. 2013. Translanguaging identities and ideologies: Creating transnational space through flexible multilingual practices amongst Chinese university students in the UK. Applied Linguistics 34 (5): 516–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Littauer, Amanda H. 2015. Bad Girls: Young Women, Sex, and Rebellion Before the Sixties. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Loughrey, John. 1998. The Other Side of Silence—Men’s Lives and Gay Identities: A Twentieth Century History. New York: Henry Holt.Google Scholar
  76. McEuen, Melissa A. 2016. Women, Gender and World War II. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. http://americanhistory.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.001/acre-978011999329175-e-55. Posted June 2016. Site visited January 12, 2017.
  77. Meyer, Leisa. 1992. Creating G.I. Jane: The regulation of sexuality and sexual behavior in the Women’s Army Corps during World War II. Feminist Studies 18 (3): 581–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. ———. 1996. Creating G.I. Jane. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Michener, James. 1949. The Fires of Spring. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  80. Miller, D.A. 1998. Place for Us: Essay on the Broadway Musical. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Mitchell, Richard O. 1964. Homosexuality and Citizenship in Florida. Tallahassee: Florida Legislative Investigative Committee.Google Scholar
  82. Mordden, Ethan. 1986. The Theater-goer. In Buddies, 30–45. New York: St. Martins Press.Google Scholar
  83. ———. 2007. All That Glittered: The Golden Age of Drama on Broadway 1919–1959. New York: St. Martins Press.Google Scholar
  84. Morden, Bette J. 1990. The Women’s Army Corps 1942–45. In The Women’s Army Corps 1945–1978, 3–34. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, U.S. Army. https://history.army.mil/html/books/030/30-14-1/cmhPub_30-14.pdf. Site accessed January 10, 1917.
  85. Morgan, Claire [Patricia Highsmith]. 1952. The Price of Salt. New York: Coward-McCann.Google Scholar
  86. Mumford, Kevin J. 1997. Interzones: Black/White Sex Districts in Chicago and New York in the Early Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  87. O’Donnell, John. 1943. Capital Stuff. The Washington Times-Herald, June 8, 1943.Google Scholar
  88. Otheguy, Ricardo, Ofelia García, and Wallis Reid. 2015. Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistics Review 6 (3): 281–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Packer, Vin. 1952. Spring Fire. New York: Fawcett Publishing.Google Scholar
  90. ———. 2004. Introduction. In Spring Fire, v–ix. San Francisco: Cleis Press.Google Scholar
  91. Provencher, Denis. 2007. An assault on French gay culture. In Gay French: Globalization, Language and Sexual Citizenship in France, 31–52. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  92. Rabinowitz, Paula. 2012. Slips of the tongue: Lesbian pulp fiction as how-to-dress manuals. In Exchanging Clothes: Habits of Being II, ed. Cristina Giorcelli and Paula Rabinowitz, 149–175. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  93. Razaf, Andy. 1928. My handyman. NYC BMG Rights management. http://www.lyricsfreak.com/e/ethel+waters/my+handy+man_20267516.html.
  94. Rechy, John. 1963. City of Night. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  95. Schenkar, Joan. 2012 [orig. 2005]. Interview with Tereska Torres. In Women’s Barracks, 173–182. New York: Feminist Press.Google Scholar
  96. Server, Lee. 1994. Love for sale. In Over My Dead Body: The Sensational Age of the American Paperback: 1945–1955, 43–56. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.Google Scholar
  97. Smaal, Yorick. 2015. Sex, Soldiers and the South Pacific 1939–45: Queer Identities in Australia in the Second World War. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Stanley, Julia. 1970. Homosexual slang. American Speech 45 (2): 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Starbird 2010 in Cauley 2015.Google Scholar
  100. Stenson. 2006. Tretter Letter. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Libraries. June 5.Google Scholar
  101. Stewart, Kathleen C. 1990. Backtalking the wilderness: “Appalachian” en-genderings. In Uncertain Terms: Negotiating Gender in American Culture, ed. Faye Ginsburg and Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, 43–56. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  102. Strickland, Bonnie Ruth. 1999. Beauty and the butch. Journal of Lesbian Studies 3 (4): 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Stryker, Susan. 2001. Queer Pulp: Perverted Passions from the Golden Age of the Paperback. New York: Chronicle Books.Google Scholar
  104. Taylor, Frank J. 1938. Fast and pretty. Colliers, August 20, p. 38.Google Scholar
  105. Taylor, Valerie [Velma Young]. 1959. The Girls in 3-B. New York: Fawcett.Google Scholar
  106. Torres, Tereska. 1950. Women’s Barracks. New York: Fawcett.Google Scholar
  107. Travers, Julie. 2006. Queering sport: Lesbian softball leagues and the transgender challenge. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 41: 431–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Treadwell, Mattie E. 1954. Special Studies: The Women’s Army Corps. United States Army in World War II. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  109. Vacha, Keith. 1985. Tony Issac. In Quiet Fire: Memoirs of Older Gay Men, 195–211. Trumansburg, NY: The Crossing Press.Google Scholar
  110. Van Vechten, Carl. 1926. Nigger Heaven. New York: Alfred Knopf.Google Scholar
  111. Vidal, Gore. 1948. The City and the Pillar. New York: E.P. Dutton.Google Scholar
  112. Vining, Donald. 1979. A Gay Diary 1933–1946. New York: The Pepys Press.Google Scholar
  113. Walker, Lisa. 2012 [orig. 2003]. Afterwards. In The Girls in 3-B, 153–175. New York: Feminist Press.Google Scholar
  114. Wertheim, Albert. 2004. The dramatic art of Uncle Sam. In Staging the War: American Drama and World War II, 126–173. Blooomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Woodhead, Lindy. 2003. War Paint: Madame Helena Rubenstein and Miss Elizabeth Arden. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Women’s Gender and Sexuality Studies ProgramFlorida Atlantic UniversityBoca RatonUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyAmerican UniversityWashington, D.C.USA

Personalised recommendations