Measurements During Optical Clearing

  • Luís Manuel Couto Oliveira
  • Valery Victorovich Tuchin
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Physics book series (SpringerBriefs in Physics)


There are several types of measurements that can be performed with biological tissues during optical clearing treatments. When analyzing these methods, two major modes of study must be provided: ex vivo and in vivo. Measurements made from ex vivo samples are more flexible, allowing, for instance, to measure tissue transmittance or sample thickness kinetics. The results obtained from these measurements do not mimic exactly the in vivo situation. In the case of in vivo tissues, results from measurements are more realistic, but a more restrict number is possible, based only on reflectance or imaging methods. In this chapter, we make a brief description and analysis of the various measurement procedures that can be made during treatments of tissues ex vivo and in vivo and present some studies where important information was collected. The valuable results already obtained or possible to obtain in future from measurements described here will be presented and explained in the following sections. A particular case with great interest not only for biophotonics but also for food industry or organ preservation is the estimation of the diffusion properties of water and agents. Such evaluation of parameters is based only on collimated transmittance and thickness measurements made from ex vivo tissues. We will describe these measurements here and exploit their use in the study of diffusion in Chap.  7.


Collimated transmittance Refractive index Diffuse reflectance Total reflectance Total transmittance Specular reflectance 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luís Manuel Couto Oliveira
    • 1
  • Valery Victorovich Tuchin
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Physics Department and Center for Innovation in Engineering and Industrial TechnologyPolytechnic Institute of Porto – School of EngineeringPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Optics and BiophotonicsSaratov State UniversitySaratovRussia
  3. 3.Institute of Precision Mechanics and Control of the RASSaratovRussia
  4. 4.Bach Institute of BiochemistryResearch Center of Biotechnology of the RASMoscowRussia
  5. 5.Tomsk State University, Tomsk & ITMO UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

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