Skip to main content

Use of Wheat Germ and Chitosan as the Natural Coagulant in Oleochemical Wastewater Treatment

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Proceedings of AICCE'19 (AICCE 2019)

Part of the book series: Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering ((LNCE,volume 53))

Included in the following conference series:

  • 1657 Accesses

Abstract

Malaysia’s oleochemical processing industry uses crude palm oil as the main source of process feedstocks. Physical–chemical treatment methods such as coagulation and flocculation processes are widely used to pre-treat oleochemical effluent followed by biological treatment to meet Standard A/B as required by the Department of Environment (DOE). Established chemicals that are used include aluminium sulphate and iron chloride as coagulants while the aluminium chloride, iron salts, and polyelectrolytes are used as flocculants. The industry is in constant effort to look into alternative chemicals that are friendly to both human and environment. Natural coagulants such as wheat germ and chitosan are proposed to treat the effluent. The investigations related to the removal rate of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) between natural and chemical coagulants were carried out. The effluent samples were analysed with the aluminium content. The results showed that the optimum dosage of wheat germ, chitosan, aluminium sulphate and iron chloride were: 2000, 20, 167 and 169 mg/L respectively. The turbidity reduction efficiency percentage using the wheat germ, chitosan, aluminium sulphate and iron chloride were reported at 80.2 ± 30.2, 78.8 ± 32.9, 96.2 ± 2.0 and 90.3 ± 3.9% respectively. The COD reduction efficiency by using wheat germ, chitosan, aluminium sulphate, and iron chloride were reported at 11.4 ± 5.8, 15.7 ± 6.6, 15.7 ± 3.1 and 15.9 ± 3.3% respectively. The findings showed that the effluent samples from natural coagulation process contains of lower aluminium concentration (0.1 ± 0.1 and 0.2 ± 0.1 mg/L) as compared to effluent samples from chemical coagulation process with the aluminium concentration of 2.4 ± 0.4 and 5.5 ± 0.3 mg/L. Thus, the use of wheat germ and chitosan are less hazardous to human health and environment.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 259.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Chin K, Wong K (1981) Palm oil refinery wastes treatment. Water Res 15(9):1087–1092

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Alshabab M, Andrianova M, Alsalloum D (2016) Modification of wastewater treatment technology at cottonseed oil plant. MATEC Web Conf 53:1040

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Tabassum S, Zhang Y, Zhang Z (2015) An integrated method for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment for achieving zero liquid discharge—a pilot study. J Clean Prod 95:148–155

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Hendrawati, Yuliastri I, Nurhasni, Rohaeti E, Effendi H, Darusman L (2016) The use of Moringa oleifera seed powder as coagulant to improve the quality of wastewater and ground water. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 31:012033

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Ko Y, Lee Y, Nam S (2007) Evaluation of a pilot scale dual media biological activated carbon process for drinking water. Korean J Chem Eng 24(2):253–260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Vara S (2012) Screening and evaluation of innate coagulants for water treatment: a sustainable approach. Int J Energy Environ Eng 3(1):29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Muisa N, Hoko Z, Chifamba P (2011) Impacts of alum residues from Morton Jaffray Water Works on water quality and fish, Harare, Zimbabwe. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 36(14–15):853–864

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. McLachlan D (1995) Aluminium and the risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Environmetrics 6:233–275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bina B, Ebrahimi A, Hesami F (2014) The effectiveness of chitosan as coagulant aid in turbidity removal from water. Int J Environ Health Eng 3(1):8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bouras (2003) Adsorptive properties of organophilic pillared clays: synthesis and characterization. PhD thesis, University of Limoges, France

    Google Scholar 

  11. Divakaran R, Sivasankara Pillai V (2002) Flocculation of river silt using chitosan. Water Res 36(9):2414–2418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Pontius FW (2016) Chitosan as a drinking water treatment coagulant. Am J Civ Eng 4(5):205

    Google Scholar 

  13. Zemmouri (2008) Use of chitosan as flocculant in water treatment. Magister thesis, National Polytechnic of Algiers

    Google Scholar 

  14. Nor Shazwani D, Tinia I, Mohd G, Intan SA (2014) Wheat germ as natural coagulant for treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Int J Chem Environ Eng 5(2):111–115

    Google Scholar 

  15. Chung C, Selvarajoo A, Sethu V, Koyande A, Arputhan A, Lim Z (2018) Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by coagulation flocculation process using peanut–okra and wheat germ–okra. Clean Technol Environ Policy 20(9):1951–1970

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Tchobanoglous G, Burton F, Stensel H (2014) Wastewater engineering. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, New York

    Google Scholar 

  17. Postnote (2002) Access to water in developing countries. Issue 178

    Google Scholar 

  18. Zemmouri H, Drouiche M, Sayeh A, Lounici H, Mameri N (2012) Coagulation flocculation test of Keddara’s water dam using chitosan and sulfate aluminium. Procedia Eng 33:254–260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Bina B, Mehdinejad MH, Nikaeen M, Movahedian Attar H (2009) Effectiveness of chitosan as natural coagulant aid in treating turbid waters. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 6(4):247–252

    Google Scholar 

  20. Davis M (2010) Water and wastewater engineering. McGraw-Hill, New York

    Google Scholar 

  21. Tri J, Dyah A, Catur P, Hanan LD (2016) Chitosan on reducing chemical oxygen demands in laundry waste water. Int J Sci Basic Appl Res 30(1):104–111

    Google Scholar 

  22. Kumar P, Prasad B, Chand S (2009) Treatment of desizing wastewater by catalytic thermal treatment and coagulation. J Hazard Mater 163(1):433–440

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Rajan G, Nalladurai JD, Puthiya VN, Sreekrishnaperumal TR, Subramaniam K (2012) Use of combined coagulation-adsorption process as pretreatment of landfill leachate. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 10:1–7

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fang Yenn Teo .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Choo, C.M., Tok, K.W., Teo, F.Y., Chong, C.H., Chok, V.S., Majid, M.F. (2020). Use of Wheat Germ and Chitosan as the Natural Coagulant in Oleochemical Wastewater Treatment. In: Mohamed Nazri, F. (eds) Proceedings of AICCE'19. AICCE 2019. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, vol 53. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32816-0_56

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32816-0_56

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-32815-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-32816-0

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics