- 425 Downloads
This chapter discusses the importance of stories in portraying factors of resilience in overcoming posttraumatic reactions that may result from the experience of potential trauma events. Video games, especially, offer the opportunity to explore our own sense of resilience through the lens of interactive fictional characters. This chapter examines posttraumatic reactions and potential trauma events as well as discusses the differences between typical posttraumatic reactions versus long-term pathology resulting from potential trauma events. Resilience and vulnerability to long-term posttraumatic effects are also discussed, highlighting various pre-event, peri-event, and post-event factors. The chapter concludes by outlining the interrelated nature of meaning-making and posttraumatic growth and how they may aid in resilience and growth.
KeywordsTrauma Posttraumatic effects Posttraumatic stress disorder Resilience Vulnerability Posttraumatic growth Video games
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
- American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Trauma. Retrieved May 29, 2019, from https://www.apa.org/topics/trauma.
- Beck, J. S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Ben-Zion, Z., Fine, N. B., Keynan, N. J., Admon, R., Green, N., Halevi, M., … Shalev, A. Y. (2018). Cognitive Flexibility predicts PTSD symptoms: Observational and interventional studies. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00477.
- Bioware. (2009). Dragon age: Origins [Computer software]. Redwood City, CA: Electronic Arts, Inc.Google Scholar
- Brown, L. S. (2009). Cultural competence in trauma therapy: Beyond the flashback. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Bungie. (2017). Destiny 2 [Computer software]. Santa Monica, CA: Activision, Inc.Google Scholar
- ConcernedApe. (2016). Stardew Valley [Computer software]. London: Chucklefish Games.Google Scholar
- Cougle, J. R., Resnick, H., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2009). A prospective examination of PTSD symptoms as risk factors for subsequent exposure to potentially traumatic events among women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 405–411. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015370.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Eurogamer. (2015, October 28). PTSD in video games—Low batteries. Retrieved May 26, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Fs3BBynQgE.
- Frankl, V. (1959). Man’s search for meaning. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
- Hashoul-Andary, R., Assayag-Nitzan, Y., Yuval, K., Aderka, I. M., Litz, B., & Bernstein, A. (2016). A longitudinal study of emotional distress intolerance and psychopathology following exposure to a potentially traumatic event in a community sample. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-015-9730-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hughes, M., Brymer, M., Chiu, W. T., Fairbank, J. A., Jones, R. T., Pynoos, R. S., … Kessler, R. C. (2011). Posttraumatic stress among students after the shootings at Virginia Tech. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3(4), 403–411. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Iacoviello, B. M., & Charney, D. S. (2014). Psychosocial facets of resilience: Implications for preventing posttrauma psychopathology, treating trauma survivors, and enhancing community resilience. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(1), 23970. https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v5.23970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- King, D. W., King, L. A., Foy, D. W., Keane, T. M., & Fairbank, J. A. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder in a national sample of female and male Vietnam veterans: Risk factors, war-zone stressors, and resilience-recovery variables. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108(1), 164–170. https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-843x.108.1.164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kopp, S. B. (1972). If you meet the Buddha on the road, kill him! The pilgrimage of psychotherapy patients. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books Inc.Google Scholar
- Mcdonald, S. E., Shin, S., Corona, R., Maternick, A., Graham-Bermann, S. A., Ascione, F. R., & Williams, J. H. (2016). Children exposed to intimate partner violence: Identifying differential effects of family environment on children’s trauma and psychopathology symptoms through regression mixture models. Child Abuse & Neglect, 58, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.06.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miron, L. R., Orcutt, H. K., & Kumpula, M. J. (2014). Differential predictors of transient stress versus posttraumatic stress disorder: Evaluating risk following targeted mass violence. Behavior Therapy, 45(6), 791–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2014.07.005.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Nanney, J. T., Wamser-Nanney, R. A., Linke, L. H., Constans, J. I., & Pyne, J. M. (2018). Pretrauma power and control beliefs and posttraumatic stress: A longitudinal study of combat soldiers. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 31(3), 427–436. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nintendo. (1986). The Legend of Zelda [Nintendo entertainment system software]. Kyoto, Japan: Nintendo.Google Scholar
- Pooley, J. A., Cohen, L., O’Connor, M., & Taylor, M. (2013). Posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth and their relationship to coping and self-efficacy in Northwest Australian cyclone communities. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5(4), 392–399. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rogue Entertainment. (2000). American McGee’s Alice [Computer software]. Redwood City, CA: Electronic Arts, Inc.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, A. (2016). The complex PTSD workbook: A mind-body approach to regaining emotional control & becoming whole. Berkeley, CA: Althea Press.Google Scholar
- Square. (1991). Final Fantasy IV [Super Nintendo entertainment system software]. Tokyo, Japan: Square.Google Scholar
- van der Kolk, B. A. (2014). The body keeps the score: Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Williams, M. B., & Poijula, S. (2016). The PTSD workbook: Simple, effective techniques for overcoming traumatic stress symptoms. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2016). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (10th revision). Retrieved June 29, 2019, from https://icd.who.int/browse10/2016/en.