Advertisement

Extra Lives

  • Raffael BoccamazzoEmail author
Chapter
  • 425 Downloads
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Cyberpsychology book series (PASCY)

Abstract

This chapter discusses the importance of stories in portraying factors of resilience in overcoming posttraumatic reactions that may result from the experience of potential trauma events. Video games, especially, offer the opportunity to explore our own sense of resilience through the lens of interactive fictional characters. This chapter examines posttraumatic reactions and potential trauma events as well as discusses the differences between typical posttraumatic reactions versus long-term pathology resulting from potential trauma events. Resilience and vulnerability to long-term posttraumatic effects are also discussed, highlighting various pre-event, peri-event, and post-event factors. The chapter concludes by outlining the interrelated nature of meaning-making and posttraumatic growth and how they may aid in resilience and growth.

Keywords

Trauma Posttraumatic effects Posttraumatic stress disorder Resilience Vulnerability Posttraumatic growth Video games 

References

  1. Acquaye, H. E. (2017). PTSD, optimism, religious commitment, and growth as post-trauma trajectories: A structural equation modeling of former refugees. The Professional Counselor, 7(4), 330–348.  https://doi.org/10.15241/hea.7.4.330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Trauma. Retrieved May 29, 2019, from https://www.apa.org/topics/trauma.
  5. Beck, J. S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Ben-Zion, Z., Fine, N. B., Keynan, N. J., Admon, R., Green, N., Halevi, M., … Shalev, A. Y. (2018). Cognitive Flexibility predicts PTSD symptoms: Observational and interventional studies. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00477.
  7. Bioware. (2009). Dragon age: Origins [Computer software]. Redwood City, CA: Electronic Arts, Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. D. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 748–766.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.68.5.748.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, L. S. (2009). Cultural competence in trauma therapy: Beyond the flashback. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, E. J., & Goodman, R. F. (2005). Childhood traumatic grief: An exploration of the construct in children bereaved on September 11. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(2), 248–259.  https://doi.org/10.1037/e416482005-035.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bungie. (2017). Destiny 2 [Computer software]. Santa Monica, CA: Activision, Inc.Google Scholar
  12. ConcernedApe. (2016). Stardew Valley [Computer software]. London: Chucklefish Games.Google Scholar
  13. Cougle, J. R., Resnick, H., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2009). A prospective examination of PTSD symptoms as risk factors for subsequent exposure to potentially traumatic events among women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 405–411.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015370.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Deković, M., Koning, I. M., Stams, G. J., & Buist, K. L. (2008). Factors associated with traumatic symptoms and internalizing problems among adolescents who experienced a traumatic event. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 21(4), 377–386.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10615800701791161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eurogamer. (2015, October 28). PTSD in video games—Low batteries. Retrieved May 26, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Fs3BBynQgE.
  16. Foa, E. B., Zinbarg, R., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1992). Uncontrollability and unpredictability in post-traumatic stress disorder: An animal model. Psychological Bulletin, 112(2), 218–238.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.2.218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Frankl, V. (1959). Man’s search for meaning. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hashoul-Andary, R., Assayag-Nitzan, Y., Yuval, K., Aderka, I. M., Litz, B., & Bernstein, A. (2016). A longitudinal study of emotional distress intolerance and psychopathology following exposure to a potentially traumatic event in a community sample. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40(1), 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-015-9730-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Howell, K. H. (2011). Resilience and psychopathology in children exposed to family violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16(6), 562–569.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2011.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hughes, M., Brymer, M., Chiu, W. T., Fairbank, J. A., Jones, R. T., Pynoos, R. S., … Kessler, R. C. (2011). Posttraumatic stress among students after the shootings at Virginia Tech. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3(4), 403–411.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Iacoviello, B. M., & Charney, D. S. (2014). Psychosocial facets of resilience: Implications for preventing posttrauma psychopathology, treating trauma survivors, and enhancing community resilience. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(1), 23970.  https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v5.23970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jayawickreme, E., & Blackie, L. E. (2014). Post-traumatic growth as positive personality change: Evidence, controversies and future directions. European Journal of Personality, 28(4), 312–331.  https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jayawickreme, E., & Blackie, L. E. (2016). Exploring the psychological benefits of hardship: A critical reassessment of posttraumatic growth. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jirek, S. L. (2017). Narrative reconstruction and post-traumatic growth among trauma survivors: The importance of narrative in social work research and practice. Qualitative Social Work: Research and Practice, 16(2), 166–188.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325016656046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. King, D. W., King, L. A., Foy, D. W., Keane, T. M., & Fairbank, J. A. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder in a national sample of female and male Vietnam veterans: Risk factors, war-zone stressors, and resilience-recovery variables. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108(1), 164–170.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-843x.108.1.164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kopp, S. B. (1972). If you meet the Buddha on the road, kill him! The pilgrimage of psychotherapy patients. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books Inc.Google Scholar
  27. Lin, T., Vaisvaser, S., Fruchter, E., Admon, R., Wald, I., Pine, D. S., … Hendler, T. (2015). A neurobehavioral account for individual differences in resilience to chronic military stress. Psychological Medicine, 45(5), 1011–1023.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291714002013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mcdonald, S. E., Shin, S., Corona, R., Maternick, A., Graham-Bermann, S. A., Ascione, F. R., & Williams, J. H. (2016). Children exposed to intimate partner violence: Identifying differential effects of family environment on children’s trauma and psychopathology symptoms through regression mixture models. Child Abuse & Neglect, 58, 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.06.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meichenbaum, D. (2014). Ways to bolster resilience in traumatized clients: Implications for psychotherapists. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 27(4), 329–336.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10720537.2013.833064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miron, L. R., Orcutt, H. K., & Kumpula, M. J. (2014). Differential predictors of transient stress versus posttraumatic stress disorder: Evaluating risk following targeted mass violence. Behavior Therapy, 45(6), 791–805.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2014.07.005.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Nanney, J. T., Wamser-Nanney, R. A., Linke, L. H., Constans, J. I., & Pyne, J. M. (2018). Pretrauma power and control beliefs and posttraumatic stress: A longitudinal study of combat soldiers. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 31(3), 427–436.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Nintendo. (1986). The Legend of Zelda [Nintendo entertainment system software]. Kyoto, Japan: Nintendo.Google Scholar
  33. Pooley, J. A., Cohen, L., O’Connor, M., & Taylor, M. (2013). Posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth and their relationship to coping and self-efficacy in Northwest Australian cyclone communities. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5(4), 392–399.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rogue Entertainment. (2000). American McGee’s Alice [Computer software]. Redwood City, CA: Electronic Arts, Inc.Google Scholar
  35. Schwartz, A. (2016). The complex PTSD workbook: A mind-body approach to regaining emotional control & becoming whole. Berkeley, CA: Althea Press.Google Scholar
  36. Shalev, A. Y. (2002). Acute stress reactions in adults. Biological Psychiatry, 51(7), 532–543.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3223(02)01335-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Square. (1991). Final Fantasy IV [Super Nintendo entertainment system software]. Tokyo, Japan: Square.Google Scholar
  38. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 455–471.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02103658.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Target article: Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1501_01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. van der Kolk, B. A. (2014). The body keeps the score: Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  41. van der Kolk, B. A., & Fisler, R. (1995). Dissociation and the fragmentary nature of traumatic memories: Overview and exploratory study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(4), 505–525.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490080402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Williams, M. B., & Poijula, S. (2016). The PTSD workbook: Simple, effective techniques for overcoming traumatic stress symptoms. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
  43. World Health Organization. (2016). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (10th revision). Retrieved June 29, 2019, from https://icd.who.int/browse10/2016/en.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Take ThisSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations