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Medications Used for Diabetes Mellitus

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Abstract

The focus of this chapter is the pathophysiology of the two predominant types of diabetes and their pharmacological management. The overall aim of treating diabetes is blood glucose management. This includes attempting to avoid high and low blood glucose levels occurring, thereby reducing the risk of complications. The management of diabetes is frequently demanding and multifactorial; understanding the pharmacological therapies available for the contemporary treatment of diabetes is a central aspect of a nurse’s knowledge and skill.

Keywords

  • Insulin
  • Biguanides
  • Sulphonylureas
  • Glinides
  • SGLT2 inhibitors
  • Incretins

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Correspondence to Haya Abu Ghazaleh .

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Appendices

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. 1.

    The onset of action of fast-acting insulin is normally:

    1. (a)

      Up to 10 min

    2. (b)

      Up to 15 min

    3. (c)

      Up to 20 min

    4. (d)

      Up to 30 min

  2. 2.

    Most insulin is clear and translucent except for some:

    1. (a)

      Fast-acting preparations

    2. (b)

      Short-acting preparations

    3. (c)

      Intermediate-acting preparations

    4. (d)

      Long-acting preparations

  3. 3.

    Metformin’s main mechanism of action involves:

    1. (a)

      Stimulation of insulin secretion

    2. (b)

      Insulin receptor up-regulation

    3. (c)

      Enhancing secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) secretion

    4. (d)

      Inhibiting secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) secretion

  4. 4.

    Use of metformin is cautioned in which condition:

    1. (a)

      Liver dysfunction

    2. (b)

      Kidney dysfunction

    3. (c)

      GI tract dysfunction

    4. (d)

      Cardiac dysfunction

  5. 5.

    Sulphonylurea medications’ main mechanism of action involves:

    1. (a)

      Stimulation of insulin secretion

    2. (b)

      Insulin receptor up-regulation

    3. (c)

      Enhancing secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) secretion

    4. (d)

      Inhibiting secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) secretion

  6. 6.

    A common adverse effect of sulphonylurea medications such as glibenclamide is:

    1. (a)

      Tachycardia

    2. (b)

      Hypoglycaemia

    3. (c)

      Polyuria

    4. (d)

      Myalgia

  7. 7.

    Glinides such as repaglinide are safe to use in combination with which other medication:

    1. (a)

      Most forms of insulin

    2. (b)

      Tolbutamide

    3. (c)

      Metformin

    4. (d)

      Glibenclamide

  8. 8.

    Together with metformin, which oral antiglycaemic drug may not cause hypoglycaemia?

    1. (a)

      Sulphonylureas

    2. (b)

      Glinides

    3. (c)

      SGLT inhibitors

    4. (d)

      Insulin

  9. 9.

    Together with metformin, which antiglycaemic drug is commonly associated with gastro-intestinal disturbances as an adverse effect?

    1. (a)

      Sulphonylureas

    2. (b)

      SGLT inhibitors

    3. (c)

      Incretins

    4. (d)

      Insulin

  10. 10.

    Glucose secretion from pancreatic beta cells is caused by:

    1. (a)

      Beta cell depolarisation following ATP formation

    2. (b)

      Beta cell repolarisation following ATP formation

    3. (c)

      Beta cell depolarisation following ATP depletion

    4. (d)

      Beta cell repolarisation following ATP depletion

Answers

1. c

2. c

3. c

4. b

5. a

6. b

7. c

8. c

9. c

10. a

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Ghazaleh, H.A., Khan, E. (2020). Medications Used for Diabetes Mellitus. In: Hood, P., Khan, E. (eds) Understanding Pharmacology in Nursing Practice . Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32004-1_9

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