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Medications Used for the Gastrointestinal System

Abstract

Gastrointestinal disturbances such as constipation, increased stomach acidity, nausea and vomiting are common place occurrences. Medications effective for these conditions are frequently obtained ‘over-the-counter’ (OTC). Use of these medications is, however, associated with several inherent risks. This chapter examines the basic mechanism of action of commonly used medications used for constipation, gastric acidity and nausea and vomiting. This discussion is related to clinical practice and the adverse reactions that may occur.

Keywords

  • Laxatives
  • Antacids
  • Proton pump inhibitors
  • H2 Receptor antagonists
  • Anti-emetic

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Correspondence to Ehsan Khan .

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Appendices

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. 1.

    Laxatives may lead to a number of biochemical abnormalities. Select one abnormality that may be aggravated by a bulk forming laxative:

    1. (a)

      Dehydration

    2. (b)

      Hyperkalaemia

    3. (c)

      Oedema

    4. (d)

      Hypoglycaemia

  2. 2.

    Most laxatives depend upon this principle for their action:

    1. (a)

      Mucosal irritation

    2. (b)

      Receptor antagonism

    3. (c)

      Osmosis

    4. (d)

      Sympathetic agonism

  3. 3.

    Some laxatives share this effect with some antacids:

    1. (a)

      Dehydration

    2. (b)

      Chelation

    3. (c)

      Acidosis

    4. (d)

      Muscle fatigue

  4. 4.

    Proper laxative dose titration and patient hydration can reduce the risk of:

    1. (a)

      Constipation

    2. (b)

      Urinary retention

    3. (c)

      Laxative dependence

    4. (d)

      Laxative tolerance

  5. 5.

    Which form of substance added to antacids neutralises stomach acid?

    1. (a)

      Salt

    2. (b)

      Base

    3. (c)

      Lipophilic solution

    4. (d)

      Milk

  6. 6.

    Antacids are commonly known to bind with which form of medication and reduce its absorption from the intestine?

    1. (a)

      Calcium channel blockers

    2. (b)

      Beta-blockers

    3. (c)

      Broncho-dilators

    4. (d)

      Antibiotics

  7. 7.

    Proton pump inhibitors block the transport of which ion into the gastric lumen?

    1. (a)

      K+

    2. (b)

      Na+

    3. (c)

      Cl

    4. (d)

      H+

  8. 8.

    Medications such as omeprazole should be monitored for drug–drug interactions because they are:

    1. (a)

      Strongly plasma bound

    2. (b)

      Nephrotoxic

    3. (c)

      Metabolised by CYP3A4

    4. (d)

      Hydrophilic

  9. 9.

    Some anti-histamine anti-emetics may increase the risk of which adverse effect?

    1. (a)

      Headache

    2. (b)

      Urinary retention

    3. (c)

      QT prolongation

    4. (d)

      Insomnia

  10. 10.

    The action of cyclizine on these structures enables it to alleviate motion sickness:

    1. (a)

      Eye and nose

    2. (b)

      Basal ganglia

    3. (c)

      Visual cortices

    4. (d)

      Vestibular organs

  11. 11.

    In which trimester of pregnancy are most anti-emetics contraindicated?

    1. (a)

      First

    2. (b)

      Second

    3. (c)

      Third

    4. (d)

      None

  12. 12.

    Domperidone and metoclopramide both work on which receptor for their main anti-emetic function?

    1. (a)

      Cholinergic

    2. (b)

      Serotonin

    3. (c)

      Dopamine

    4. (d)

      NK1

Answers

1. a

2. c

3. b

4. c

5. b

6. d

7. d

8. c

9. c

10. d

11. a

12. c

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Khan, E. (2020). Medications Used for the Gastrointestinal System. In: Hood, P., Khan, E. (eds) Understanding Pharmacology in Nursing Practice . Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32004-1_11

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