Potential Biomechanical Overload on Skeletal Muscle Structures in Students During Walk with Backpack

  • Giovanni D’AddioEmail author
  • Leandro Donisi
  • Luca Mercogliano
  • Giuseppe Cesarelli
  • Paolo Bifulco
  • Mario Cesarelli
Conference paper
Part of the IFMBE Proceedings book series (IFMBE, volume 76)


Although a very large number of students in the world use uncomfortable and heavy backpacks, their negative musculoskeletal effects on gait and posture are still not well investigated. Aim of the paper has been the study of differences affecting the kinematic gait parameters during free walk and walk with backpack to evaluate their potential influence on skeletal-muscle disorders. Gait recordings in both conditions on 50 healthy volunteers participating students have been performed by a G-WALK inertial system calculating the main kinematic parameters namely Propulsion index and Initial Double Support, Stance and Swing Phases. ANOVA results between both walking conditions showed that all gait cycle studied values are significantly negatively affected by walking with backpack supposing a potential biomechanical overload on skeletal muscle structures in students exposed to these prolonged conditions.


Gait analysis Inertial device School backpack 


Conflict of Interest Declaration

The authors declare they have no conflict of interests.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni D’Addio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Leandro Donisi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Luca Mercogliano
    • 3
  • Giuseppe Cesarelli
    • 4
  • Paolo Bifulco
    • 1
    • 5
  • Mario Cesarelli
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCSPaviaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Advanced Biomedical SciencesUniversity Hospital of Naples ‘Federico II’NaplesItaly
  3. 3.NIT - Naples Institute of Technologies Inc.NaplesItaly
  4. 4.Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Healthcare (IIT@CRIB)Italian Institute of TechnologyNaplesItaly
  5. 5.DIETIUniversity of Naples ‘Federico II’NaplesItaly

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