When Are Software Verification Results Valid for Approximate Hardware?

  • Tobias Isenberg
  • Marie-Christine Jakobs
  • Felix Pauck
  • Heike WehrheimEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11823)


Approximate computing (AC) is an emerging paradigm for energy-efficient computation. The basic idea of AC is to sacrifice high precision for low energy by allowing hardware to carry out only “approximately correct” calculations. This provides a major challenge for software quality assurance: Programs successfully verified to be correct might be erroneous on approximate hardware.

In this paper, we present a novel approach for determining under what conditions a software verification result is valid for approximate hardware. To this end, we compute the allowed tolerances for AC hardware from successful verification runs. More precisely, we derive a set of constraints which – when met by the AC hardware – guarantee that the verification result carries over to AC. Our approach is based on the framework of abstract interpretation. Furthermore, we show (1) how to practically extract tolerances from verification runs employing predicate abstraction, and (2) how to check such constraints on hardware designs. We have implemented all techniques, and exemplify them on example C programs and a number of recently proposed approximate adders.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tobias Isenberg
    • 1
  • Marie-Christine Jakobs
    • 2
  • Felix Pauck
    • 1
  • Heike Wehrheim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Paderborn UniversityPaderbornGermany
  2. 2.TU DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

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