Advertisement

Science Technology Parks and Close Relations: Heterogeneity, Context and Data

Chapter
  • 208 Downloads
Part of the Palgrave Advances in the Economics of Innovation and Technology book series (PAEIT)

Abstract

We analyze the data sources and measures associated with the evaluation of Science and Technology Parks (STPs) and their close relations, incubators and accelerators. We outline an organizing framework of analysis that highlights three contextual levels of analysis (macro, meso and micro) and that reflects the heterogeneity of STPs. We draw on the existing literature to identify the range of outcome and driver variables needed to assess the impact of STPs and their close relations at different contextual levels. Data sources are discussed to obtain these variables. We illustrate uses of different data sources to study the heterogeneity of STPs, incubators and accelerators.

References

  1. Aernoudt, R. 2004. Incubators: Tool for Entrepreneurship? Small Business Economics 23 (2): 127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albahari, A., A. Barge-Gil, S. Pérez-Canto, and A. Modrego. 2018. The Influence of Science and Technology Park Characteristics on Firms’ Innovation Results. Papers in Regional Science 97 (2): 253–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldrich, H., and E.R. Auster. 1986. Even Dwarfs Started Small: Liabilities of Age and Size and Their Strategic Implications. In Research in Organization Behavior, ed. B. Staw and L.L. Cummings, vol. 8, 165–198. Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  4. Amezcua, A.S., M.G. Grimes, S.W. Bradley, and J. Wiklund. 2013. Organizational Sponsorship and Founding Environments: A Contingency View on the Survival of Business-Incubated Firms, 1994–2007. Academy of Management Journal 56 (6): 1628–1654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Autio, E., M. Kenney, P. Mustar, D. Siegel, and M. Wright. 2014. Entrepreneurial Innovation Ecosystems and Context. Research Policy 43 (7): 1097–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Autio, E., S. Nambisan, L. Thomas, and M. Wright. 2018. Digital Affordances, Spatial Affordances, and the Genesis of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal 12 (1): 72–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bacon, N., K. Hoque, and M. Wright. 2018. Is Job Insecurity Higher in Leveraged Buyouts? British Journal of Industrial Relations.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjir.12447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbero, J., J. Casillas, M. Wright, and A.R. Garcia. 2014. Do Different Types of Incubators Produce Different Types of Innovation? Journal of Technology Transfer 39 (2): 151–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breznitz, S., and Q. Zhang. 2019. Fostering the Growth of Student Start-Ups from University Accelerators: An Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Perspective. Industrial and Corporate Change 28 (4): 855–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chan, K.F., and T. Lau. 2005. Assessing Technology Incubator Programs in the Science Park: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Technovation 25 (10): 1215–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clarysse, B., M. Wright, A. Lockett, E. van de Velde, and A. Vohora. 2005. Spinning Out New Ventures: A Typology of Incubation Strategies from European Research Institutions. Journal of Business Venturing 20 (2): 183–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Colombo, M., C. Rossi-Lamastra, and M. Wright. 2018. Accelerators: Insights for a research agenda, Ch. 10. In Accelerators: Successful Venture Creation and Growth, ed. M. Wright and I. Drori. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  13. Díez-Vial, I., and A. Montoro-Sanchez. 2017. Research Evolution in Science Parks and Incubators: Foundations and New Trends. Scientometrics 110 (3): 1243–1272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. European Commission. 2014. Setting Up, Managing and Evaluating EU Science and Technology Parks.  https://doi.org/10.2776/73401.
  15. Fehder, D., and Y. Hochberg 2018. Can Accelerators Accelerate Local High-Growth Entrepreneurship? In Evidence from Venture-Backed Startup Activity. Working Paper.Google Scholar
  16. Filatotchev, I., X. Liu, J. Lu, and M. Wright. 2011. Knowledge Spillovers Through Human Mobility Across National Borders: Evidence from Zhongguancun Science Park in China. Research Policy 40 (3): 453–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flynn, D.M. 1993. A Critical Exploration of Sponsorship, Infrastructure, and New Organizations. Small Business Economics 5 (2): 129–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grimaldi, R., and A. Grandi. 2005. Business Incubators and New Venture Creation: An Assessment of Incubating Models. Technovation 25 (2): 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guadix, J., J. Carrillo-Castrillo, L. Onieva, and J. Navascues. 2016. Success Variables in Science and Technology Parks. Journal of Business Research 69 (11): 4870–4875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hallen, B., C.B. Bingham, and S.L. Cohen 2015. Do Accelerators Accelerate? Learning, Sponsorship, and Success in New Ventures. Paper presented at the INSEAD Doriot Entrepreneurial Conference, October 23–24, Fontainebleau, France.Google Scholar
  21. HESA. 2017. The Higher Education – Business and Community Interaction (HE-BCI) Survey 2015/6. London: HEFC.Google Scholar
  22. Hobbs, K.G., A.N. Link, and J.T. Scott. 2017. Science and Technology Parks: An Annotated and Analytical Literature Review. Journal of Technology Transfer 42 (4): 957–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Khavandkar, E. 2018. Open Search Strategy and Performance: Evidence from UK Science and Technology Parks. Mimeo.Google Scholar
  24. Khavandkar, E., N. Theodorakopoulos, M. Hart, and J. Preston. 2016. Leading the Diffusion of Intellectual Capital Management Practices in Science Parks. In Human Resource Management, Innovation and Performance, ed. H. Shipton, P. Budhwar, P. Sparrow, and A. Brown. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  25. Kotlar, J., A. DeMassis, M. Wright, and F. Frattini. 2018. Organizational Goals: Antecedents, Formation Processes, and Implications for Firm Behavior and Performance. International Journal of Management Reviews 20 (S1): S3–S18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lecluyse, L., M. Knockaert, and A. Spithoven. 2019. Contribution of Science Parks: A Literature Review and Future Research Agenda. Journal of Technology Transfer 44 (2): 559–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lehmann, E.E., and M. Menter. 2018. Public Cluster Policy and Performance. Journal of Technology Transfer 43 (3): 558–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liberati, D., M. Marinucci, and G.M. Tanzi. 2016. Science and Technology Parks in Italy: Main Features and Analysis of Their Effects on the Firms Hosted. Journal of Technology Transfer 41 (4): 694–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lindelöf, P., and H. Löfsten. 2003. Science Park Location and New Technology-Based Firms in Sweden: Implications or Strategy and Performance. Small Business Economics 20 (3): 245–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Link, A.N., and J. Scott. 2006. US University Research Parks. Journal of Productivity Analysis 25 (1): 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lockett, A., M. Wright, A. Burrows, L. Scholes, and D. Paton. 2008. Export Intensity of Venture Capital Backed Companies. Small Business Economics 31 (1): 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lukes, M., M.C. Longo, and J. Zouhar. 2018. Do Business Incubators Really Enhance Entrepreneurial Growth? Evidence from a Large Sample of Innovative Italian Start-Ups. Technovation, 82–83: 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Magro, E., and J.R. Wilson. 2018. Policy-Mix Evidence: Government Challenges from New-Placed Based Innovation Policies. Research Policy, in press.Google Scholar
  34. Martin, R., C. Berndt, B. Klagge, and P. Sunley. 2005. Spatial Proximity Effects and Regional Equity Gaps in the Venture Capital Market: Evidence from Germany and the United Kingdom. Environment and Planning A 37 (7): 1207–1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McAdam, R., T. McConvery, and G. Armstrong. 2004. Barriers to Innovation Within Small Firms in a Peripheral Location. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 10 (3): 206–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mejia, J., and A. Gopal 2015. Now and Later? Mentorship, Investor Ties and New Venture Performance in Entrepreneurial Seed-Accelerators. Mimeo.Google Scholar
  37. Minguillo, D., R. Tijssen, and M. Thelwall. 2015. Do Science Parks Promote Research and Technology? A Scientometric Analysis of the UK. Scientometrics 102 (1): 701–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Monck, C.S.P., R.B. Porter, P. Quintas, D.J. Storey, and P. Wynarczyk. 1988. Science Parks and the Growth of High Technology Firms. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  39. Mrkajic, B. 2017. Business Incubation Models and Institutionally Void Environments. Technovation 68: 44–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mueller, C., P. Westhead, and M. Wright. 2012. Formal Venture Capital Acquisition: Can Experienced Entrepreneurs Compensate for the Spatial Proximity Benefits of ‘Star Universities’? Environment and Planning A 44 (2): 281–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nambisan, S., M. Wright, and M. Feldman. 2019. The Digital Transformation of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Progress, Challenges and Key Themes. Research Policy 48 (8).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pauwels, C., B. Clarysse, M. Wright, and J. Van Hove. 2016. Understanding a New Generation Incubation Model: The Accelerator. Technovation 50–51: 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Phan, P., D. Siegel, and M. Wright. 2005. Science Parks and Incubators: Observations, Synthesis and Further Research. Journal of Business Venturing 20 (2): 165–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Qin, F., M. Wright, and J. Giao. 2018. Time Compression of the Entrepreneurial Process in the Accelerator Setting. Working Paper.Google Scholar
  45. Ramirez-Aleson, M., and M. Fernandez-Olmos. 2018. Unravelling the Effects of Science Parks on the Innovation Performance of NTBFs. Journal of Technology Transfer 43 (2): 482–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Siegel, D., P. Westhead, and M. Wright. 2003a. Science Parks and the Performance of New Technology-Based Firms: A Review of Recent U.K. Evidence and an Agenda for Future Research. Small Business Economics 20 (2): 177–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. ———. 2003b. Assessing the Impact of University Science Parks on Research Productivity: Exploratory Firm-Level Evidence from the United Kingdom. International Journal of Industrial Organization 21 (9): 1357–1369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sofouli, E., and N.S. Vonortas. 2007. S&T Parks and Business Incubators in Middle-Sized Countries: The Case of Greece. Journal of Technology Transfer 32 (5): 525–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Squicciarini, M. 2008. Science Parks’ Tenants Versus Out-of-Park Firms: Who Innovates More? A Duration Model. Journal of Technology Transfer 33 (1): 45–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. ———. 2009. Science Parks: Seedbeds of Innovation? A Duration Analysis of Firms’ Patenting Activity. Small Business Economics 32 (2): 169–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stinchcombe, A.L. 1965. Social Structure and Organizations. In Handbook of Organizations, ed. J.G. March, 142–193. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  52. Ubeda, F., M. Ortiz-de-Urbina-Criado, and E.-M. Mora-Valentín. 2019. Do Firms Located in Science and Technology Parks Enhance Innovation Performance? The Effect of Absorptive Capacity. Journal of Technology Transfer 44 (1): 21–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 2017. Science, Technology and Innovation Policy. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  54. Vásquez-Urriago, A.R., A. Barge-Gil, A. Modrego, and E. Paraskevopoulou. 2014. The Impact of Science and Technology Parks on Firms’ Product Innovation: Empirical Evidence from Spain. Journal of Evolutionary Economics 24 (4): 835–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wallsten, S. 2004. Do Science Parks Generate Regional Economic Growth? In An Empirical Analysis of Their Effects on Job Growth and Venture Capital. Washington, DC: AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies.Google Scholar
  56. Westhead, P. 1997. R & D ‘Inputs’ and ‘Outputs’ of Technology-Based Firms Located On and Off Science Parks. R & D Management 27 (1): 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Westhead, P., and D.J. Storey. 1994. An Assessment of Firms Located On and Off Science Parks in the United Kingdom. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  58. Wilson, N., M. Kacer, and M. Wright. 2018a. Equity Finance and the UK Regions: Understanding Regional Variations in the Supply and Demand of Equity and Growth Finance for Business, BEIS Research Paper. London: Department for BEIS.Google Scholar
  59. Wilson, N., M. Wright, and M. Kacer. 2018b. The Equity Gap and Knowledge Based Firms. Journal of Corporate Finance 50 (3): 626–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Winston Smith, S., and T. Hannigan 2014. Home Run, Strike Out, or Base Hit: How Do Accelerators Impact Exit and VC Financing in New Firms? Academy of Management Proceedings 2014 (1).Google Scholar
  61. Wright, M. 2014. Academic Entrepreneurship, Technology Transfer and Society: Where Next? Journal of Technology Transfer 39 (3): 322–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wright, M., and I. Drori. 2018. Accelerators: Successful Venture Creation and Growth. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wright, M., M. Hart, and K. Fu. 2015. A Nation of Angels: Assessing the Impact of Business Angels. London: UK Business Angels Association/Centre for Enterprise/Enterprise Research Centre.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Imperial College Business SchoolLondonUK
  2. 2.Durham University Business SchoolDurhamUK

Personalised recommendations