Skip to main content

Resistance Activities

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Nutrition, Fitness, and Mindfulness

Part of the book series: Nutrition and Health ((NH))

  • 1604 Accesses

Abstract

Resistance activities, which include weight machines, free weights and resistance tubing or bands, and body-weight activities, provide a stimulus to the neuromuscular system promoting health and functional adaptations. As the aging population continues to grow, the ability to maintain or slow the decline in neuromuscular health is essential for the prevention of disability, disease, and premature death. Neuromuscular alterations begin to occur early in life and become accelerated around the sixth and seventh decades. The nervous system undergoes reductions in motor unit number due to apoptosis and an increase in motor unit size due to the reinnervation of denervated muscle fibers. These changes lead to decreases in voluntary activation, conduction velocity, motor unit discharge rate, and motor unit recruitment range. In addition, decreases in the number of skeletal muscle fibers and satellite cells, muscle fiber size, and myosin heavy chain IIa, contractile velocity, peak force and power, and Ca+ sensitivity also contribute to age-related muscle impairments. Participation in resistance activities has a positive effect on enhancing neuromuscular strength, power, and physical function in older adults. Principles of specificity, overload, variation, reversibility, and individuality can be used to inform the design of resistance exercise programs to promote neuromuscular and functional outcomes of interest. Despite the many benefits of resistance activities, potential risks should be considered when determining the appropriateness of engaging in such activities, especially when working with vulnerable populations. Monitoring strategies enhance both adherence and efficacy of resistance activities and provide valuable information to be used by the health-care team to make timely and informed decisions regarding modifications to the prescribe resistance exercise program.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 99.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Aagaard P, Magnusson PS, Larsson B, KjæR M, Krustrup P. Mechanical muscle function, morphology, and fiber type in lifelong trained elderly. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:1989–96. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31814fb402.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Aagaard P, Suetta C, Caserotti P, Magnusson SP, Kjaer M. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20:49–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01084.x.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Artero EG, Lee D, Ruiz JR, Sui X, Ortega FB, Church TS, Lavie CJ, Castillo MJ, Blair SN. A prospective study of muscular strength and all-cause mortality in men with hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:1831–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2010.12.025.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Bollen JC, Dean SG, Siegert RJ, Howe TE, Goodwin VA. A systematic review of measures of self-reported adherence to unsupervised home-based rehabilitation exercise programmes, and their psychometric properties. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e005044. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005044.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Bovend’Eerdt TJH, Botell RE, Wade DT. Writing SMART rehabilitation goals and achieving goal attainment scaling: a practical guide. Clin Rehabil. 2009;23:352–61. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215508101741.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Castaneda C, Layne JE, Munoz-Orians L, Gordon PL, Walsmith J, Foldvari M, Roubenoff R, Tucker KL, Nelson ME. A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:2335–41. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.25.12.2335.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nutrition, physical activity and obesity data, trends and maps. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Chan D, Cheema BS. Progressive resistance training in end-stage renal disease: systematic review. Am J Nephrol. 2016;44:32–45. https://doi.org/10.1159/000446847.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Cheema B, Abas H, Smith B, O’Sullivan A, Chan M, Patwardhan A, Kelly J, Gillin A, Pang G, Lloyd B, Fiatarone Singh M. Randomized controlled trial of intradialytic resistance training to target muscle wasting in ESRD: the progressive exercise for anabolism in kidney disease (PEAK) study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;50:574–84. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.07.005.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Cheema BS, Chan D, Fahey P, Atlantis E. Effect of progressive resistance training on measures of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, muscular strength and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;44:1125–38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-014-0176-8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Chodzko-Zajko WJ, Proctor DN, Fiatarone Singh MA, Minson CT, Nigg CR, Salem GJ, Skinner JS. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:1510–30. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a0c95c.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Claflin DR, Larkin LM, Cederna PS, Horowitz JF, Alexander NB, Cole NM, Galecki AT, Chen S, Nyquist LV, Carlson BM, Faulkner JA, Ashton-Miller JA. Effects of high- and low-velocity resistance training on the contractile properties of skeletal muscle fibers from young and older humans. J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:1021–30. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01119.2010.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. Clegg A, Young J, Iliffe S, Rikkert MO, Rockwood K. Frailty in elderly people. Lancet. 2013;381:752–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62167-9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B, Regensteiner JG, Blissmer BJ, Rubin RR, Chasan-Taber L, Albright AL, Braun B. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:e147–67. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc10-9990.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, Martin FC, Michel J-P, Rolland Y, Schneider SM, Topinkova E, Vandewoude M, Zamboni M. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on sarcopenia in older people. Age Ageing. 2010;39:412–23. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afq034.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Duchateau J, Semmler JG, Enoka RM. Training adaptations in the behavior of human motor units. J Appl Physiol. 2006;101:1766–75. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00543.2006.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Fisher JD, Amico KR, Fisher WA, Harman JJ. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of antiretroviral adherence and its applications. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2008;5:193–203.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Folland JP, Williams AG. The adaptations to strength training: morphological and neurological contributions to increased strength. Sports Med. 2007;37:145–68.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Gabriel DA, Kamen G, Frost G. Neural adaptations to resistive exercise: mechanisms and recommendations for training practices. Sports Med. 2006;36:133–49.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee I-M, Nieman DC, Swain DP. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1334–59. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Glasgow RE, Estabrooks PE. Pragmatic applications of RE-AIM for health care initiatives in community and clinical settings. Prev Chronic Dis. 2018;15:170271. https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd15.170271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Goodpaster BH, Park SW, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt M, Schwartz AV, Simonsick EM, Tylavsky FA, Visser M, Newman AB. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61:1059–64.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Häkkinen K, Kraemer WJ, Newton RU, Alen M. Changes in electromyographic activity, muscle fibre and force production characteristics during heavy resistance/power strength training in middle-aged and older men and women. Acta Physiol Scand. 2001;171:51–62. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-201X.2001.00781.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Hardage J, Peel C, Morris D, Graham C, Brown C, Foushee HR, Braswell J. Adherence to Exercise Scale for Older Patients (AESOP): a measure for predicting exercise adherence in older adults after discharge from home health physical therapy. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2007;30:69–78.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Heymsfield SB, Gonzalez MC, Lu J, Jia G, Zheng J. Skeletal muscle mass and quality: evolution of modern measurement concepts in the context of sarcopenia. Proc Nutr Soc. 2015;74:355–66. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665115000129.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Hülsmann M, Quittan M, Berger R, Crevenna R, Springer C, Nuhr M, Mörtl D, Moser P, Pacher R. Muscle strength as a predictor of long-term survival in severe congestive heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2004;6:101–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejheart.2003.07.008.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Hunter SK, Pereira HM, Keenan KG. The aging neuromuscular system and motor performance. J Appl Physiol. 2016;121:982–95. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00475.2016.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Kamen G, Knight CA. Training-related adaptations in motor unit discharge rate in young and older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004;59:1334–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Keeley R, Engel M, Reed A, Brody D, Burke BL. Toward an emerging role for motivational interviewing in primary care. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2018;20:41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-018-0901-3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Kosek DJ, Kim J-S, Petrella JK, Cross JM, Bamman MM. Efficacy of 3 days/wk resistance training on myofiber hypertrophy and myogenic mechanisms in young vs. older adults. J Appl Physiol. 2006;101:531–44. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01474.2005.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Lee PG, Jackson EA, Richardson CR. Exercise prescriptions in older adults. Am Fam Physician. 2017;95:425–32.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Li R, Xia J, Zhang X, Gathirua-Mwangi WG, Guo J, Li Y, Mckenzie S, Song Y. Associations of muscle mass and strength with all-cause mortality among US older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018;50:458–67. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001448.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Liu C, Latham NK. Progressive resistance strength training for improving physical function in older adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002759.pub2.

  35. Lusardi MM, Pellecchia GL, Schulman M. Functional performance in community living older adults. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2003;26:14–22. https://doi.org/10.1519/00139143-200312000-00003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Martel GF, Roth SM, Ivey FM, Lemmer JT, Tracy BL, Hurlbut DE, Metter EJ, Hurley BF, Rogers MA. Age and sex affect human muscle fibre adaptations to heavy-resistance strength training. Exp Physiol. 2006;91:457–64. https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2005.032771.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Meriwether RA, Lee JA, Lafleur AS, Wiseman P. Physical activity counseling. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:1129–36.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Mitchell WK, Williams J, Atherton P, Larvin M, Lund J, Narici M. Sarcopenia, dynapenia, and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review. Front Physiol. 2012;3:260. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2012.00260.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Moore DR, Kelly RP, Devries MC, Churchward-Venne TA, Phillips SM, Parise G, Johnston AP. Low-load resistance exercise during inactivity is associated with greater fibre area and satellite cell expression in older skeletal muscle: muscle morphology with exercise and inactivity. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018;9:747–54. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12306.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. Morgan PJ, Young MD, Smith JJ, Lubans DR. Targeted health behavior interventions promoting physical activity: a conceptual model. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2016;44:71–80. https://doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000075.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Narici MV, Maganaris CN. Adaptability of elderly human muscles and tendons to increased loading. J Anat. 2006;208:433–43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00548.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Narici MV, Reeves ND, Morse CI, Maganaris CN. Muscular adaptations to resistance exercise in the elderly. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2004;4:161–4.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Oliveira CLP, Dionne IJ, Prado CM. Are Canadian protein and physical activity guidelines optimal for sarcopenia prevention in older adults? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018;43:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2018-0141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Pedersen BK. Muscle as a secretory organ. In: Terjung R, editor. Comprehensive physiology. Hoboken: Wiley; 2013. https://doi.org/10.1002/cphy.c120033.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  45. Peterson MD, Rhea MR, Sen A, Gordon PM. Resistance exercise for muscular strength in older adults: a meta-analysis. Ageing Res Rev. 2010;9:226–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2010.03.004.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. Peterson MD, Sen A, Gordon PM. Influence of resistance exercise on lean body mass in aging adults: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:249–58. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181eb6265.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. Piercy KL, Troiano RP, Ballard RM, Carlson SA, Fulton JE, Galuska DA, George SM, Olson RD. The physical activity guidelines for Americans. JAMA. 2018;320:2020. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.14854.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Ratamess NA, Alvar BA, Evetoch TK, Housh TJ, Kibler WB, Kraemer WJ, Triplett NT. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:687–708. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181915670.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Raue U, Trappe TA, Estrem ST, Qian H-R, Helvering LM, Smith RC, Trappe S. Transcriptome signature of resistance exercise adaptations: mixed muscle and fiber type specific profiles in young and old adults. J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:1625–36. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00435.2011.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  50. Reeves ND, Narici MV, Maganaris CN. Effect of resistance training on skeletal muscle-specific force in elderly humans. J Appl Physiol. 2004;96:885–92. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00688.2003.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Reeves ND, Narici MV, Maganaris CN. In vivo human muscle structure and function: adaptations to resistance training in old age. Exp Physiol. 2004;89:675–89. https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2004.027797.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Reid KF, Fielding RA. Skeletal muscle power: a critical determinant of physical functioning in older adults. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2012;40:4–12. https://doi.org/10.1097/JES.0b013e31823b5f13.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. Room J, Hannink E, Dawes H, Barker K. What interventions are used to improve exercise adherence in older people and what behavioural techniques are they based on? A systematic review. BMJ Open. 2017;7:e019221. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019221.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. Shiroma EJ, Cook NR, Manson JE, Moorthy M, Buring JE, Rimm EB, Lee I-M. Strength training and the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017;49:40–6. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001063.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. Shuval K, DiPietro L, Skinner CS, Barlow CE, Morrow J, Goldsteen R, Kohl HW. “Sedentary behaviour counselling”: the next step in lifestyle counselling in primary care; pilot findings from the Rapid Assessment Disuse Index (RADI) study. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48:1451–5. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2012-091357.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Boulé NG, Wells GA, Prud’homme D, Fortier M, Reid RD, Tulloch H, Coyle D, Phillips P, Jennings A, Jaffey J. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:357–69.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Slivka D, Raue U, Hollon C, Minchev K, Trappe S. Single muscle fiber adaptations to resistance training in old (>80 yr) men: evidence for limited skeletal muscle plasticity. Am J Phys Regul Integr Comp Phys. 2008;295:R273–80. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00093.2008.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Snijders T, Nederveen JP, Joanisse S, Leenders M, Verdijk LB, van Loon LJC, Parise G. Muscle fibre capillarization is a critical factor in muscle fibre hypertrophy during resistance exercise training in older men. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017;8:267–76. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12137.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Steib S, Schoene D, Pfeifer K. Dose-response relationship of resistance training in older adults: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:902–14. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181c34465.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Straight CR, Lindheimer JB, Brady AO, Dishman RK, Evans EM. Effects of resistance training on lower-extremity muscle power in middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sports Med. 2016;46:353–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0418-4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Stuart CA, Lee ML, South MA, Howell MEA, Stone MH. Muscle hypertrophy in prediabetic men after 16 wk of resistance training. J Appl Physiol. 2017;123:894–901. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00023.2017.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. Suetta C, Aagaard P, Rosted A, Jakobsen AK, Duus B, Kjaer M, Magnusson SP. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA, muscle strength, EMG, and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse. J Appl Physiol. 2004;97:1954–61. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01307.2003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Sylvia LG, Bernstein EE, Hubbard JL, Keating L, Anderson EJ. Practical guide to measuring physical activity. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114:199–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2013.09.018.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Trappe S, Williamson D, Godard M. Maintenance of whole muscle strength and size following resistance training in older men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002;57:B138–43.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Unhjem R, Lundestad R, Fimland MS, Mosti MP, Wang E. Strength training-induced responses in older adults: attenuation of descending neural drive with age. Age. 2015;37:9784. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-015-9784-y.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Venturelli M, Reggiani C, Richardson RS, Schena F. Skeletal muscle function in the oldest-old: the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2018;1:188. https://doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Verdijk LB, Gleeson BG, Jonkers RAM, Meijer K, Savelberg HHCM, Dendale P, van Loon LJC. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance training is accompanied by a fiber type-specific increase in satellite cell content in elderly men. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Med Sci. 2009;64A:332–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/gln050.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Verdijk LB, Snijders T, Holloway TM, VAN Kranenburg J, VAN Loon LJC. Resistance training increases skeletal muscle capillarization in healthy older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48:2157–64. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001019.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Volaklis KA, Halle M, Meisinger C. Muscular strength as a strong predictor of mortality: a narrative review. Eur J Intern Med. 2015;26:303–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2015.04.013.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Watson EL, Greening NJ, Viana JL, Aulakh J, Bodicoat DH, Barratt J, Feehally J, Smith AC. Progressive resistance exercise training in CKD: a feasibility study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015;66:249–57. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.10.019.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. White NT, Delitto A, Manal TJ, Miller S. The American physical therapy association’s top five choosing wisely recommendations. Phys Ther. 2015;95:9–24. https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20140287.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Willey KA, Singh MAF. Battling insulin resistance in elderly obese people with type 2 diabetes: bring on the heavy weights. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:1580–8. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.26.5.1580.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. World Health Organization. World report on ageing and health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  74. World Health Organization. Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Yorke AM, Curtis AB, Shoemaker M, Vangsnes E. Grip strength values stratified by age, gender, and chronic disease status in adults aged 50 years and older. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2015;38:115–21. https://doi.org/10.1519/JPT.0000000000000037.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jared M. Gollie .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Gollie, J.M., Harris-Love, M.O. (2020). Resistance Activities. In: Uribarri, J., Vassalotti, J. (eds) Nutrition, Fitness, and Mindfulness. Nutrition and Health. Humana, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30892-6_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30892-6_9

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Humana, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-30891-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-30892-6

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics