An Investigation on Phase Characteristics of Galvanic Coupling Human Body Communication

Conference paper
Part of the IFMBE Proceedings book series (IFMBE, volume 74)


Human body communication (HBC) has the advantages of low power consumption, low radiation and anti-interference ability, which has broad application prospects in entertainment and health care. Accurate human channel characteristics will contribute to the development of HBC. This paper explores the effect of channel length and electrode size on human body channel phase characteristic. A galvanic coupling human body communication experimental platform was built. The measurement results show that in the low frequency band, the phase transition is less than the high frequency. When the frequency is in the range of 200 kHz to 300 kHz, the phase will oscillate. Increasing the electrode size can improve phase oscillation. This paper provides a reference for the application of human body communication in long channel and the miniaturization design of transceiver.


Human body communication (HBC) Galvanic coupling Phase characteristic Channel length 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China U1505251 and 61201397, the Project of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology 2016YFE0122700, and the S&T Project of Fujian Province 2018I0011.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Callejón, M.A., Naranjo-Hernández, D., Reina-Tosina, J., Roa, L.M.: A comprehensive study into intrabody communication measurements. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 62(9), 2446–2455 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gao, Y.M., Wu, Z.M., Pun, S.H., Mak, P.U., Vai, M.I., Du, M.: A novel field-circuit FEM modeling and channel gain estimation for galvanic coupling real IBC measurements. Sensors 16(4), 471–486 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kwak, K.S., Ullah, S., Ullah, N.: An overview of IEEE 802.15.6 standard. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies, ISABEL2010, Rome, Italy, pp. 1–6 (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Naranjo-Hernández, D., Callejón-Leblic, M.A., Lučev Vasić, Ž., Seyedi, M., Gao, Y.M.: Past results, present trends, and future challenges in intrabody communication. Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput. 2018(4), 1–39 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pereira, M.D., Alvarez-Botero, G.A., de Sousa, F.R.: Characterization and modeling of the capacitive HBC channel. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 64(10), 2626–2635 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    ICNIRP: Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric and magnetic fields (1 Hz to 100 kHz). Health Phys. 99(6), 818–827 (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maity, S., Das, D., Sen, S.: Wearable health monitoring using capacitive voltage-mode human body communication. In: Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2017, Seogwipo, South Korea, pp. 1–4 (2017)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chow, E.Y., Ouyang, Y.H., Beier, B., et al.: Evaluation of cardiovascular stents as antennas for implantable wireless applications. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57(10), 2523–2532 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lučev Vasić, Ž., Krois, I., Cifrek, M.: A capacitive intrabody communication channel from 100 kHz to 100 MHz. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(12), 3280–3289 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bae, J., Yoo, H.J.: The effects of electrode configuration on body channel communication based on analysis of vertical and horizontal electric dipoles. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 63(4), 1409–1420 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mao, J., Yang, H., Lian, Y., Zhao, B.: A five-tissue-layer human body communication circuit model tunable to individual characteristics. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 12(2), 303–312 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bae, J., Cho, H., Song, K., Lee, H., Yoo, H.J.: The signal transmission mechanism on the surface of human body for body channel communication. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(3), 582–593 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nie, Z., Ma, J., Ivanov, K., Lei, W.: An investigation on dynamic human body communication channel characteristics at 45 MHz in different surrounding environments. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 13(1), 309–312 (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lučev Vasić, Ž., Krois, I., Cifrek, M.: Effect of transformer symmetry on intrabody communication channel measurements using grounded instruments. Automatika 57(1), 15–26 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hwang, J.H., Kang, T.W., Kim, Y.T., Park, S.O.: Measurement of transmission properties of HBC channel and its impulse response model. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 65(1), 177–188 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Physics and Information EngineeringFuzhou UniversityFuzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Lab of Medical Instrumentation and Pharmaceutical Technology of Fujian ProvinceFuzhouChina
  3. 3.Faculty of Electrical Engineering and ComputingUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  4. 4.School of Basic Medical SciencesFujian Medical UniversityFuzhouChina

Personalised recommendations