Determinants of Financial Inclusion: The Case of 125 Countries from 2004 to 2017

Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics book series (SPBE)


This paper attempts to investigate the effects of GDP growth, GDP per capita, inflation rate and interest rate spread on financial inclusion. Financial inclusion has been measured by account ownership at a financial institution for ages 15+ and for ages 25+, automated teller machines and depositors with commercial banks. This has been conducted using a sample of 145 countries, over the period from the 2004 to 2017. Results indicate that GDP per capita may have a significant positive effect on financial inclusion, while each of GDP growth, and interest rate spread may have a significant negative effect. Besides, inflation rate seems to have no significant effect on financial inclusion. Moreover, robustness check assures these findings.


Financial inclusion GMM technique Panel analysis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of CommerceAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt

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