Skip to main content

The iCASS Platform: Nine Principles for Landscape Conservation Design

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Current Trends in Landscape Research


The Anthropocene presents society with a super-wicked problem comprised of multiple contingent and conflicting issues driven by a complex array of change agents. Super-wicked problems cannot be adequately addressed using siloed decision-making approaches developed by hierarchical institutions using science that is compartmentalized by discipline. Adaptive solutions will rest on human ingenuity that fosters transformation toward sustainability. To successfully achieve these objectives, conservation and natural resource practitioners need a paradigm that transcends single-institution interests and decision-making processes. We propose a platform for an emerging and evolutionary step change in sustainability planning: landscape conservation design (LCD). We use existing governance and adaptation planning principles to develop an iterative, flexible innovation systems framework—the “iCASS Platform.” It consists of nine principles and five attributes—innovation, convening stakeholders, assessing current and plausible future landscape conditions, spatial design, and strategy design. The principles are organized around four cornerstones of innovation: people, purpose, process, and product. The iCASS Platform can facilitate LCD via processes that aim to create and empower social networks, foster stakeholder involvement, engender co-production and cross-pollination of knowledge, and provide multiple opportunities for deliberation, transparency, and collaborative decision-making. Our intention is to pivot from single-institution, siloed assessment and planning to stakeholder-driven, participatory design, leading to collaborative decision-making and extensive landscape conservation.

This chapter is a reprint of a chapter in Landscape and Urban Planning Volume 176, August 2018, Pages 64–74 ( Reprint with kind permission of Elsevier. License order number 4570171307086 of April 16, 2019.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


Download references


We wish to dedicate this article to the memory of our co-author, John Pierce, who passed away on February 23, 2018. John was the Chief Wildlife Scientist for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, where he worked for over 30 years. John truly embodied the spirit of landscape conservation: passionate, innovative, and committed to collaboration. He had a unique ability to inspire others and will be greatly missed by all.

We thank, with great appreciation, the following for their contribution in development of this essay: Amanda Robertson, Anisa Romero, and the Landscape Conservation Design Minimum Standards Working Group—an ad hoc group of conservation professionals—for their assistance in developing an unpublished report (Campellone et al. 2014) that provided background information for this paper. The paper is benefited greatly from the thoughtful critical review of Catherine Doyle-Capitman, Sean Finn, Natalie Sexton, Scott Schwenk, and Steve Traxler. The authors acknowledge financial support from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Headquarters Office, National Wildlife Refuge System.

Disclaimer The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or any other agency. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the US Government.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Robert M. Campellone .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Appendix: Supplementary Data

Appendix: Supplementary Data

Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Campellone, R.M. et al. (2019). The iCASS Platform: Nine Principles for Landscape Conservation Design . In: Mueller, L., Eulenstein, F. (eds) Current Trends in Landscape Research. Innovations in Landscape Research. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics