Field Study VI: The Effect of Loading Strategies on Removal Efficiencies of a Hybrid Constructed Wetland Treating Mixed Domestic and Agro-Industrial Wastewaters

  • Michal Šereš
  • Tereza HnátkováEmail author
  • Petr Maršík
  • Tomáš Vaněk
  • Petr Soudek
  • Jan Vymazal
Part of the Applied Environmental Science and Engineering for a Sustainable Future book series (AESE)


The treatment of domestic wastewater using constructed wetlands (CWs) is common in the Czech Republic; however, the treatment of agro-industrial wastewater is still at the beginning of its application. A hybrid CW consisting of two horizontal filters (HF1 and HF2), one vertical filter (VF), and three stabilization ponds (SP1–SP3) was put into operation in 2012 in Chrámce, Ústí region, Czech Republic. The hybrid system treats mixed household and agro-industrial wastewater mainly from sheep farms and wine and fruit juice production factories. The filters are planted with Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Iris pseudacorus, Iris sibirica, Glyceria maxima, and Lythrum salicaria. In a fed-batch operation, the inflow values vary on the basis of wine processing seasons. In high season, it reaches 17,012 mg L−1 of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 1806 mg L−1 of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and 43,723 mg L−1 of total suspended solids (TSS) on average. Despite such high inlet concentrations, the removal efficiency (RE) for the three selected parameters reached up to 99% for all the parameters. In this work, the removal of four pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen) in the hybrid system was studied as well. The CW performed high RE for all of the four pharmaceuticals when the RE of diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen was 81.1%, 93.2%, 96.7%, and 78.3%, respectively.


Agro-industrial wastewater Hybrid constructed wetlands Macrophytes Pharmaceuticals NSAIDs 



The study was partly supported also by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, grant no. TA01020573 “Biotechnological system for treatment of wastewaters from agriculture and their recycling”.


  1. Abe K, Komada M, Ookuma A (2010) Purification performance of the FWS constructed wetland in biotope area over three years. In: Gilkes R, Prakongkep N (eds) 19th World Congress of Soil Science; Soil Solutions for a Changing World, Brisbane, Australia, 2010. International Union of Soil Sciences, pp 18–21Google Scholar
  2. APHA (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Ávila C, García J (2015) Chapter 6 – Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in the environment and their removal from wastewater through constructed wetlands. In: Zeng EY (ed) Comprehensive analytical chemistry, vol 67. Elsevier, pp 195–244. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ávila C, Bayona JM, Martín I, Salas JJ, García J (2015) Emerging organic contaminant removal in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland system for wastewater treatment and reuse. Ecol Eng 80:108–116. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brix H, Arias CA (2005) The use of vertical flow constructed wetlands for on-site treatment of domestic wastewater: new Danish guidelines. Ecol Eng 25(5):491–500. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cronk JK (1996) Constructed wetlands to treat wastewater from dairy and swine operations: a review. Agric Ecosyst Environ 58(2–3):97–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ghermandi A, Bixio D, Thoeye C (2007) The role of free water surface constructed wetlands as polishing step in municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse. Sci Total Environ 380(1–3):247–258. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grismer ME, Carr MA, Shepherd HL (2003) Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater. Water Environ Res 75(5):412–421. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hakk H, Sikora L, Casey FXM (2018) Fate of estrone in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands. Ecol Eng 111:60–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Han S, Choi K, Kim J, Ji K, Kim S, Ahn B, Yun J, Choi K, Khim JS, Zhang X, Giesy JP (2010) Endocrine disruption and consequences of chronic exposure to ibuprofen in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa. Aquat Toxicol 98(3):256–264. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Healy MG, Rodgers M, Mulqueen J (2007) Treatment of dairy wastewater using constructed wetlands and intermittent sand filters. Bioresour Technol 98(12):2268–2281. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Helenkár A, Sebők Á, Záray G, Molnár-Perl I, Vasanits-Zsigrai A (2010) The role of the acquisition methods in the analysis of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Danube River by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. Talanta 82(2):600–607. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hijosa-Valsero M, Matamoros V, Martín-Villacorta J, Bécares E, Bayona JM (2010) Assessment of full-scale natural systems for the removal of PPCPs from wastewater in small communities. Water Res 44(5):1429–1439. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hijosa-Valsero M, Sidrach-Cardona R, Bécares E (2012) Comparison of interannual removal variation of various constructed wetland types. Sci Total Environ 430:174–183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hudcová T, Vymazal J, Kriška Dunajský M (2013) Reconstruction of a constructed wetland with horizontal subsurface flow after 18 years of operation. Water Sci Technol 68(5):1195–1202. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kadlec RH, Wallace SD (2009) Treatment wetlands, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  17. Kantawanichkul S, Neamkam P, Shutes RBE (2001) Nitrogen removal in a combined system: vertical vegetated bed over horizontal flow sand bed. Water Sci Technol 44(11–12):137–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kasak K, Kill K, Pärn J, Mander Ü (2018) Efficiency of a newly established in-stream constructed wetland treating diffuse agricultural pollution. Ecol Eng 119:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Knight RL, Payne VWE Jr, Borer RE, Clarke RA Jr, Pries JH (2000) Constructed wetlands for livestock wastewater management. Ecol Eng 15(1–2):41–55. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kotowska U, Kapelewska J, Sturgulewska J (2014) Determination of phenols and pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewaters from Polish treatment plants by ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction followed by GC-MS. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(1):660–673. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marsik P, Soudek P, Hudcova T, Syrovatka J, Vanek T (2015) Pharmaceuticals in domestic and agricultural waste waters – problem and its solution. Water Pract Technol 10(3):564–572. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marsik P, Rezek J, Židková M, Kramulová B, Tauchen J, Vaněk T (2017) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the watercourses of Elbe basin in Czech Republic. Chemosphere 171:97–105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matamoros V, Salvadó V (2012) Evaluation of the seasonal performance of a water reclamation pond-constructed wetland system for removing emerging contaminants. Chemosphere 86(2):111–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matamoros V, Caselles-Osorio A, García J, Bayona JM (2008) Behaviour of pharmaceutical products and biodegradation intermediates in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. A microcosm experiment. Sci Total Environ 394(1):171–176. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mendes LRD, Tonderski K, Iversen BV, Kjaergaard C (2018) Phosphorus retention in surface-flow constructed wetlands targeting agricultural drainage water. Ecol Eng 120:94–103. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Poe AC, Piehler MF, Thompson SP, Paerl HW (2003) Denitrification in a constructed wetland receiving agricultural runoff. Wetlands 23(4):817–826.[0817:DIACWR]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reif R, Suárez S, Omil F, Lema JM (2008) Fate of pharmaceuticals and cosmetic ingredients during the operation of a MBR treating sewage. Desalination 221(1–3):511–517. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Šereš M, Hnátková T, Vymazal J, Vaněk T (2017) Removal efficiency of constructed wetland for treatment of agricultural wastewaters. Chem J Mol 12(1):45–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shepherd HL, Grismer ME, Tchobanoglous G (2001) Treatment of high-strength winery wastewater using a subsurface-flow constructed wetland. Water Environ Res 73(4):394–403. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sultana M-Y, Akratos CS, Vayenas DV, Pavlou S (2015) Constructed wetlands in the treatment of agro-industrial wastewater: a review. Hem Ind 69(2):127–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tao W, He Y, Wang Z, Smith R, Shayya W, Pei Y (2012) Effects of pH and temperature on coupling nitritation and anammox in biofilters treating dairy wastewater. Ecol Eng 47:76–82. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tunçsiper B (2009) Nitrogen removal in a combined vertical and horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland system. Desalination 247(1–3):466–475. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vymazal J (2010) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Water 2(3):530–549. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vymazal J (2011a) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: five decades of experience. Environ Sci Technol 45(1):61–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vymazal J (2011b) Constructed wetlands in the Czech Republic: 20 years of experience. In: Vymazal J (ed) Water and nutrient management in natural and constructed wetlands. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 169–178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vymazal J (2011c) Long-term performance of constructed wetlands with horizontal sub-surface flow: ten case studies from the Czech Republic. Ecol Eng 37(1):54–63. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vymazal J (2013) The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: a review of a recent development. Water Res 47(14):4795–4811. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vymazal J (2016) Constructed wetlands for water quality regulation. In: Finlayson CM, Everard M, Irvine K et al (eds) The wetland book: I: structure and function, management and methods. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vymazal J, Březinová T (2015) The use of constructed wetlands for removal of pesticides from agricultural runoff and drainage: a review. Environ Int 75:11–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vymazal J, Kröpfelová L (2015) Multistage hybrid constructed wetland for enhanced removal of nitrogen. Ecol Eng 84:202–208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vystavna Y, Frkova Z, Marchand L, Vergeles Y, Stolberg F (2017) Removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in a full scale constructed wetland in East Ukraine. Ecol Eng 108:50–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang C, Shi H, Adams CD, Gamagedara S, Stayton I, Timmons T, Ma Y (2011) Investigation of pharmaceuticals in Missouri natural and drinking water using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Water Res 45(4):1818–1828. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang M, Zhang D, Dong J, Tan SK (2018) Application of constructed wetlands for treating agricultural runoff and agro-industrial wastewater: a review. Hydrobiologia 805(1):1–31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xue Y, Kovacic DA, David MB, Gentry LE, Mulvaney RL, Lindau CW (1999) In situ measurements of denitrification in constructed wetlands. J Environ Qual 28(1):263–269. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yu JT, Bouwer EJ, Coelhan M (2006) Occurrence and biodegradability studies of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in sewage effluent. Agric Water Manag 86(1–2):72–80. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang DQ, Hua T, Gersberg RM, Zhu J, Ng WJ, Tan SK (2013) Carbamazepine and naproxen: fate in wetland mesocosms planted with Scirpus validus. Chemosphere 91(1):14–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhu D, Sun C, Zhang H, Wu Z, Jia B, Zhang Y (2012) Roles of vegetation, flow type and filled depth on livestock wastewater treatment through multi-level mineralized refuse-based constructed wetlands. Ecol Eng 39:7–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michal Šereš
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tereza Hnátková
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Petr Maršík
    • 4
  • Tomáš Vaněk
    • 4
  • Petr Soudek
    • 4
  • Jan Vymazal
    • 3
  1. 1.DEKONTA a.s.StehelčevesCzech Republic
  2. 2.Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of ScienceCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Environmental SciencesCzech University of Life Sciences PraguePragueCzech Republic
  4. 4.Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Institute of Experimental BotanyAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicPragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations