Impregnation of Lightweight Aggregate Particles with Phase Change Material for Its Use in Asphalt Mixtures

  • Muhammad Rafiq KakarEmail author
  • Zakariaa Refaa
  • Jörg Worlitschek
  • Anastasia Stamatiou
  • Manfred N. Partl
  • Moises Bueno
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 48)


Phase change materials (PCM) are widely investigated nowadays for building applications due to their ability of passive heating and cooling, thus regulating indoor temperature. Recently, PCMs have been studied also as additives of asphalt binders for road applications. However, PCM modifications of asphalt binder limits the effect due to the low amount of binder (5–6%wt.) used in asphalt mixtures. In order to increase the PCM content in a mixture an effective option may consist of modifying aggregate particles as main mixture component (94–95%wt.). In this research, foam glass and burnt expanded clay (agriculture beads) particles are impregnated with PCM (Tetradecane, Tmelt = 6 °C) and investigated for relatively low temperature applications. PCM impregnation together with the protective coating and sealing of these PCM soaked lightweight aggregate (LWA) particles are performed in the lab. The particles are coated using epoxy adhesives combined with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The results reveal that porous lightweight particles are indeed promising PCM carriers and comparatively easy to impregnate with liquid PCM. However, the choice of coating technique depends on the final application as hot, warm or cold mix asphalt.


Tetradecane Low temperature distresses Specific heat capacity Asphalt pavement 



The authors would like to acknowledge the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) for the financial support of the project number 200021_169396 and Dr. Thomas Lüthi at Center for X-ray Analytics for conducting CT-Scan test.


  1. Baetens R, Jelle BP, Gustavsen A (2010) Phase change materials for building applications: a state-of-the-art review. Energy Build 42(9):1361–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cabeza LF, Castellon C, Nogues M, Medrano M, Leppers R, Zubillaga O (2007) Use of microencapsulated PCM in concrete walls for energy savings. Energy Build 39(2):113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Garcia A, Austin CJ, Jelfs J (2016) Mechanical properties of asphalt mixture containing sunflower oil capsules. J Clean Prod 118:124–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hamzah MO, Kakar MR, Quadri SA, Valentin J (2014) Quantification of moisture sensitivity of warm mix asphalt using image analysis technique. J Clean Prod 68:200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kakar MR, Hamzah MO, Valentin J (2015) A review on moisture damages of hot and warm mix asphalt and related investigations. J Clean Prod 99:39–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kakar MR, Refaa Z, Bueno M, Worlitschek J, Stamatiou A, Partl MN (2019a) Investigating bitumen’s direct interaction with Tetradecane as potential phase change material for low temperature applications. Road Mater Pavement Des, 1–8Google Scholar
  7. Kakar MR, Refaa Z, Worlitschek J, Stamatiou A, Partl MN, Bueno M (2018) Use of microencapsulated phase change materials in bitumen to mitigate the thermal distresses in asphalt pavements. In: RILEM 252-CMB-Symposium on Chemo Mechanical Characterization of Bituminous Materials. Springer, Cham, pp 129–135Google Scholar
  8. Kakar MR, Refaa Z, Worlitschek J, Stamatiou A, Partl MN, Bueno M (2019b) Thermal and rheological characterization of bitumen modified with microencapsulated phase change materials. Constr Build Mater 215:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kariznovi M, Nourozieh H, Guan JGJ, Abedi J (2013) Measurement and modeling of density and viscosity for mixtures of Athabasca bitumen and heavy n-alkane. Fuel 112:83–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kheradmand M, Castro-Gomes J, Azenha M, Silva PD, de Aguiar JL, Zoorob SE (2015) Assessing the feasibility of impregnating phase change materials in lightweight aggregate for development of thermal energy storage systems. Constr Build Mater 89:48–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kissock JK, Hannig JM, Whitney TI, Drake ML (1998) Testing and simulation of phase change wallboard for thermal storage in buildings. In: Proceedings of the International Solar Energy Conference, New York, USA, pp 45–52Google Scholar
  12. Liu J, Zhao S, Li L, Li P, Saboundjian S (2017) Low temperature cracking analysis of asphalt binders and mixtures. Cold Reg Sci Technol 141:78–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mallick R, Hooper F, O’Brien S, Kashi M (2004) Evaluation of use of synthetic lightweight aggregate in hot-mix asphalt. Transp Res Rec: J Transp Res Board 1891:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Manning BJ, Bender PR, Cote SA, Lewis RA, Sakulich AR, Mallick RB (2015) Assessing the feasibility of incorporating phase change material in hot mix asphalt. Sustain Cities Soc 19:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Qian Z, Chen L, Jiang C, Luo S (2011) Performance evaluation of a lightweight epoxy asphalt mixture for bascule bridge pavements. Constr Build Mater 25(7):3117–3122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Refaa Z, Kakar MR, Stamatiou A, Worlitschek J, Partl MN, Bueno M (2018) Numerical study on the effect of phase change materials on heat transfer in asphalt concrete. Int J Therm Sci 133:140–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ryms M, Denda H, Jaskuła P (2017) Thermal stabilization and permanent deformation resistance of LWA/PCM-modified asphalt road surfaces. Constr Build Mater 142:328–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ryms M, Lewandowski WM, Klugmann-Radziemska E, Denda H, Wcisło P (2015) The use of lightweight aggregate saturated with PCM as a temperature stabilizing material for road surfaces. Appl Therm Eng 81:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sharma A, Tyagi VV, Chen CR, Buddhi D (2009) Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13(2):318–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tyagi VV, Kaushik SC, Tyagi SK, Akiyama T (2011) Development of phase change materials based microencapsulated technology for buildings: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15(2):1373–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wang J, Molenaar AA, van de Ven MF, Wu S (2018) Influence of internal structure on the permanent deformation behavior of a dense asphalt mixture. Constr Build Mater 171:850–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wei K, Wang Y, Ma B (2019) Effects of microencapsulated phase change materials on the performance of asphalt binders. Renew Energy 132:931–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wycoff JC (1959) Suitability of lightweight aggregate for bituminous plant mix. ASTM Bull 235:33–36Google Scholar
  24. Zhang MH, Gjvorv OE (1991) Mechanical properties of high-strength lightweight concrete. Mater J 88(3):240–247Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Rafiq Kakar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zakariaa Refaa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jörg Worlitschek
    • 2
  • Anastasia Stamatiou
    • 2
  • Manfred N. Partl
    • 1
  • Moises Bueno
    • 1
  1. 1.Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and TechnologyDübendorfSwitzerland
  2. 2.Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and ArtsHorwSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations