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From the Badr Brigade to the Popular Mobilization Forces: Fighting the Americans While Turning Iraq into a New Lebanon

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Iran, Revolution, and Proxy Wars

Part of the book series: Middle East Today ((MIET))

Abstract

To the Office of Liberation Movement, a precursor of the Quds Force, the Iraqi Shiites were a perfect target for extending the revolution. The Guards recruited many of the Shiites who accepted Saddam Hussein to the Badr militia. However, it was only after the American invasion in 2003, that Badr fighters, along with Quds Force personnel crossed into Iraq. Seizing upon the post-invasion chaos, Suleimani quickly bolstered the number and size of Shiite militias.

Unaware of the Iranian influence, the Americans ordered a radical form of de-Baathification and dissolved the Iraqi army. Nouri al Maliki, Suleimini’s candidate for prime minister, aggravated the situation by marginalizing and persecuting the Sunnis. Incorporated into the government, the Shiite militias devastated the Sunni community, fueling a Salafi backlash from Al-Qaeda Iraq (AQI)-turned-Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). The Quds Force chief redeemed himself by creating the largely Shiite Popular Mobilization Forces, but Iraq felt short of becoming another Lebanon. Mindful of the sectarian damage done by Maliki, the new government has stirred a more neutral course, helped by the presence of a small contingent of American forces.

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Notes

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  20. 20.

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  23. 23.

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  24. 24.

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  25. 25.

    Cockburn, Muqtada al Sadr, pp. 130–138.

  26. 26.

    Cockburn, Muqtada al Sadr, p. 261; MNA, A Story of the Formation of Irregular War Forces of the IRGC, Mashregh News, https://www.mashreghnews.ir/news/571647/روایتی-از-تشکیل-نیروی-جنگ-نامنظم-در-سپاه-چرا-نیروهای-ویژه-سپاه; From Guerrilla Operations to Cooperation with Iraqi Opponents at the Ramadan Camp, defapress.ir/fa/news/86415/از-عملیات%E2%80%8Cهای-چریکی-تا-همکاری-با-معارضان-عراقی-در-قرارگاه-برون-مرزی-رمضان.

  27. 27.

    Ken Silverstein, “The Minister of Civil War,” Harper’s Magazine, August 2008.

  28. 28.

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  29. 29.

    Quoted in Steven K. O’Hern, The Intelligence Wars. Lessons from Baghdad, Pantheon Books, 2008, p. 44; Gordon, Endgame, 150.

  30. 30.

    Mahan Abedin. “The Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI).” Middle East Intelligence Bulletin, Vol. 5 No. 10, October 2003; Dexter Filkins, Wanted Rebel Vows Loyalty to bin Laden, Web Sites Say, The New York Times, October 14, 2004, https://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/18/world/middleeast/wanted-rebel-vows-loyalty-to-bin-laden-web-sites-say.html.

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  32. 32.

    Steven O’Hern, The Intelligence Wars, loc. 294.

  33. 33.

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  34. 34.

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  39. 39.

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  40. 40.

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  45. 45.

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  47. 47.

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  49. 49.

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  50. 50.

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    Michael Gordon, Endgame, pp. 133, 319, 315, 357.

  54. 54.

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  57. 57.

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  59. 59.

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  60. 60.

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  62. 62.

    Michael Griffin, Islamic State. Rewriting History, London: Pluto Press, 2016, p. 98.

  63. 63.

    Sinan Salaheddin, Iraq Confirms the Arrest of Ministers Bodyguards, The Washington Post, December 21, 2012.

  64. 64.

    The United States Wants to Impose its Allies on the government, 217.218.67.229/farsi/detail/1393/06/16/6145/iraq-cabinet-us/.

  65. 65.

    Griffin, Islamic State, p. 95.

  66. 66.

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  68. 68.

    Hashd Al-shaabi Entered Political Phase, Taadol Newspaper, www.taadolnewspaper.ir/بخش-جهان-114057/68-حشد-الشعبی-وارد-فاز-سیاسی-شد

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  70. 70.

    Boxes full of Money from Iran to Iraq, https://farsi.alarabiya.net/fa/middle-east/2018/05/10/ویدیو-جعبه-های-مملو-از-پول-و-عکس-یکی-از-نامزدهای-نزدیک-به-ایران-انتخابات-عراق.html.

  71. 71.

    Ghassam Adnan and Isabel Coles, “Iraqi Premier Visit to Saudi Arabia Reflects Deeper Ties to the Kingdome.” Wall Street Journal, April 18, 2019; TWH, Statement from the President on the Designation of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps as a Foreign Terrorist Organization, The White House, April 8, 2019, https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/statement-president-designation-islamic-revolutionary-guard-corps-foreign-terrorist-organization/; AYN, Iraq Cannot Sign Security Agreement with Iran’s Enemy, Aftab Yazd Newspaper, aftabeyazd.ir/134411-عراق-نمی%E2%80%8Cتواند-هم-با-ایران-و-هم-با-دشمن-ایران-وارد-توافق-امنیتی-شود.html; Entekhab, Iran Warned Iraqi Prime Minister About Signing Electric Agreement with Saudi Arabia, Entekhab.ir, https://www.entekhab.ir/fa/news/471692/ادعای-العرب-ایران-درباره-امضای-توافق-برقی-با-عربستان-به-نخست-وزیر-عراق-هشدار-غیر-مستقیم-داده-عبدالمهدی-به-این-هشدار-پاسخی-نداده-او-می%E2%80%8Cخواهد-از-پیشنهاد-عربستان-برای-تامین-برق-عراق-استفاده-جزئی-کند-طوریکه-به-منافع-ایران-هم-ضرری-وارد-نشود.

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Seliktar, O., Rezaei, F. (2020). From the Badr Brigade to the Popular Mobilization Forces: Fighting the Americans While Turning Iraq into a New Lebanon. In: Iran, Revolution, and Proxy Wars. Middle East Today. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29418-2_5

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