Advertisement

Fostering Interaction Between Locals and Visitors by Designing a Community-Based Tourism Platform on a Touristic Island

  • Mara DionisioEmail author
  • Cláudia Silva
  • Valentina Nisi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11747)

Abstract

More people are traveling than ever before. This intense and disproportionate growth in tourism may, however, generate negative environmental and social effects, especially on islands. In order to address this issue, this article presents the design and evaluation of Há-Vita, an interactive web platform, whose goal is to foster awareness of local nature and folk knowledge and create connections between locals and visitors. We explored these design goals through different research methods, such as user studies with tourists in hotel lobbies, as well as focus groups consisting of two different groups of local residents and a group of visitors. Theoretically, Há-Vita is grounded in the concept of “community-based tourism ventures,” which is concerned with environmental preservation via ecotourism practices and, at the same time, the empowerment of local communities. Furthermore, the design rationale of the platform is also inspired by the authenticity theory, which examines tourists’ pursuit of meaningful interactions with locals. Our results indicate that, despite time constraints (for visitors), locals and visitors were willing to interact with each other as they acknowledged authentic benefits in such interaction. Furthermore, our focus groups with locals have shown the potential to stimulate different levels of local empowerment based on the community-based tourism framework in the design iterations of Há-Vita.

Keywords

Community empowerment Tourism Nature and culture preservation Design HCI Tourism sustainability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to acknowledge our fellow researchers Ana Bettencourt, Dina Dionisio and the support of following funding entities: LARSyS (UID/EEA/50009/2019), MITIExcell (M1420-01-0145-FEDER-000002) and FCT Grant (PD/BD/114142/2015).

References

  1. 1.
    Center for Responsible Travel: The Case for Responsible Travel: Trends & Statistics 2015 (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    MacCannell, D.: The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class. University of California Press, London (1976)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tussyadiah, I.P.: Toward a theoretical foundation for experience design in tourism. J. Travel Res. 53, 543–564 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287513513172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Foth, M., Satchell, C., Paulos, E., Igoe, T., Ratti, C.: Pervasive Persuasive Technology and Environmental Sustainability, p. 76 (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Scheyvens, R.: Ecotourism and the empowerment of local communities. Tour. Manag. 20, 245–249 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(98)00069-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baudouin, P.: On Digital Accessibility and ICT (Coverage and Use) for the Outermost Regions, p. 28 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barros, C.P., Machado, L.P.: The length of stay in tourism. Ann. Tour. Res. 37, 692–706 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dourish, P.: HCI and environmental sustainability: the politics of design and the design of politics. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, pp. 1–10. ACM, New York (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1145/1858171.1858173
  9. 9.
    DiSalvo, C., Sengers, P., Brynjarsdóttir, H.: Mapping the landscape of sustainable HCI. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1975–1984. ACM, New York (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1145/1753326.1753625
  10. 10.
    ACIF, KPMG: Documento Estrategico Turismo Madeira-2015-2020 (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zimmerman, J., Forlizzi, J., Evenson, S.: Research through design as a method for interaction design research in HCI. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 493–502. ACM (2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blackstock, K.: A critical look at community based tourism. Community Dev. J. 40, 39–49 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsi005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Manyara, G., Jones, E.: Community-based tourism enterprises development in Kenya: an exploration of their potential as avenues of poverty reduction. J. Sustain. Tour. 15, 628–644 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.2167/jost723.0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Okazaki, E.: A community-based tourism model: its conception and use. J. Sustain. Tour. 16, 511–529 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580802159594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sebele, L.S.: Community-based tourism ventures, benefits and challenges: Khama Rhino Sanctuary Trust, Central District, Botswana. Tour. Manag. 31, 136–146 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.01.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cohen, E.: Authenticity and commoditization in tourism. Ann. Tour. Res. 15, 371–386 (1988).  https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(88)90028-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Head, B.W.: Community engagement: participation on whose terms? Aust. J. Polit. Sci. 42, 441–454 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1080/10361140701513570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fredericks, J., Amayo Caldwell, G., Tomitsch, M.: Middle-out design: collaborative community engagement in urban HCI. In: Presented at the 2 December (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1145/3010915.3010997
  19. 19.
    Salazar, N.B.: Community-based cultural tourism: issues, threats and opportunities. J. Sustain. Tour. 20, 9–22 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2011.596279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dangi, T.B., Jamal, T.: An integrated approach to “sustainable community-based tourism”. Sustainability 8, 475 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.3390/su8050475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Nuenen, T.: The production of locality on peer-to-peer platforms. Cogent Soc. Sci. 2, 1215780 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2016.1215780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goffman, E.: The presentation of Self in Everyday Life. 1959. Gardeb City NY (2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    MacCannell, D.: Staged authenticity: arrangements of social space in tourist settings. Am. J. Sociol. 79, 589–603 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chung, J.Y.: Online friendships in a hospitality exchange network: a sharing economy perspective. Int. J. Contemp. Hosp. Manag. 29, 3177–3190 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-08-2016-0475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moyle, B., Weiler, B., Croy, G.: Tourism interaction on islands: the community and visitor social exchange. Int. J. Cult. Tour. Hosp. Res. 4, 96–107 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1108/17506181011045172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pine, B.J., Gilmore, J.H.: The Experience Economy. Harvard Business Press, Boston (2011)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Things to Do in - Well Anywhere| Your Personal Tour Guide| Vayable. https://www.vayable.com/
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
    Spotted by locals: city guides by insiders. https://www.spottedbylocals.com/
  30. 30.
    Chung, J.Y., Buhalis, D., Petrick, J.F.: The Use of Social Network Analysis to Examine the Interactions between Locals and Tourists in an Online Community, p. 9 (2010)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Norman, D.A., Stappers, P.J.: DesignX: complex sociotechnical systems. She Ji J. Des. Econ. Innov. 1, 83–106 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sheji.2016.01.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Novacek, M.J.: Engaging the public in biodiversity issues. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 11571–11578 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0802599105CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mara Dionisio
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Cláudia Silva
    • 2
  • Valentina Nisi
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.FCT/NOVALisbonPortugal
  2. 2.ITI/LARSYS, Madeira-ITIFunchalPortugal
  3. 3.Universidade da MadeiraFunchalPortugal

Personalised recommendations