Etiology of Gender Dysphoria



Several theories of the etiology of gender incongruity have been proposed to explain the origins of the condition. Historically, individuals who were uncomfortable in their birth-assigned sex were thought to suffer from severe psychopathology. As technology advanced and more individuals sought treatment, biological theories emerged and replaced psychoanalytic theories. It became evident that although people may experience distress with their birth-assigned sex, this was not, in and of itself, a pathological disorder. An assemblage of research emerged supporting a biological basis for the condition. Researchers have found evidence of several areas in the brain that differ in transgender and non-transgender individuals. Twin and familial studies suggest a genetic component, and some researchers have explored specific genes of the androgen and estrogen receptors. Early hormonal influences on the brain appear to account for different brain phenotypes and may ultimately provide answers to the origins of gender incongruence.


Gender dysphoria Right hemisphere Etiology Gender incongruity Cortex, Neurodevelopmental 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical and Forensic PsychologistEvanstonUSA

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