Skip to main content

Parkinson Disease

  • 733 Accesses

Abstract

Parkinson disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease reported worldwide and presents multiple diverse and disparate manifestations over a prolonged disease course. At any point, speech and swallowing functions may be disturbed, and dysfunctional swallowing, leading to aspiration pneumonia, is the most common cause of death. Current treatments demonstrate limited benefit for speech and swallowing impairments, but novel approaches and greater insight into disease pathogenesis offer hope of improved management of Parkinson disease and its sequelae.

Keywords

  • Parkinson disease
  • Dysphagia
  • Aspiration pneumonia
  • α-Synucleinopathy
  • Hypophonia
  • Lee Silverman Voice Technique
  • Choir therapy

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-28852-5_12
  • Chapter length: 17 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-28852-5
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 12.1
Fig. 12.2
Fig. 12.3

Abbreviations

AADC:

Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase

AD:

Autosomal dominant

AR:

Autosomal recessive

BBB:

Blood-brain barrier

COMT:

Catechol-O-methyltransferase

DA:

Dopamine

DJ-1:

DJ-1 parkinsonism associated deglycase∗

LRRK2:

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2∗

Parkin:

Parkin (PARK2)∗

PD:

Parkinson disease

PINK1:

PTEN-induced putative kinase 1∗

RLN:

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

SNCA:

α-Synuclein gene (also called PARK1/4)∗

UES:

Upper esophageal sphincter

VF:

Vocal folds

VFSS:

Video-fluoroscopic swallowing study

∗:

Gene names for genes associated with familial Parkinson disease

References

  1. Videira PAQ, Castro-Caldas M. Linking glycation and glycosylation with inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. Front Neurosci. 2018;12:381.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Kulisevsky J, Oliveira L, Fox SH. Update in therapeutic strategies for Parkinson’s disease. Curr Opin Neurol. 2018;31(4):439–47.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Ko EJ, Chae M, Cho SR. Relationship between swallowing function and maximum phonation time in patients with Parkinsonism. Ann Rehabil Med. 2018;42(3):425–32.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Plowman-Prine EK, Sapienza CM, Okun MS, Pollock SL, Jacobson C, Wu SS, et al. The relationship between quality of life and swallowing in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24(9):1352–8.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. van Hooren MR, Baijens LW, Voskuilen S, Oosterloo M, Kremer B. Treatment effects for dysphagia in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014;20(8):800–7.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. van Hooren MR, Baijens LW, Vos R, Pilz W, Kuijpers LM, Kremer B, et al. Voice- and swallow-related quality of life in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Laryngoscope. 2016;126(2):408–14.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Tomita S, Oeda T, Umemura A, Kohsaka M, Park K, Yamamoto K, et al. Video-fluoroscopic swallowing study scale for predicting aspiration pneumonia in Parkinson’s disease. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0136722.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Hobson P, Meara J. Mortality and quality of death certification in a cohort of patients with Parkinson’s disease and matched controls in North Wales, UK at 18 years: a community-based cohort study. BMJ Open. 2018;8(2):e018969.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Mantri S, Fullard ME, Beck J, Willis AW. State-level prevalence, health service use, and spending vary widely among Medicare beneficiaries with Parkinson disease. NPJ Parkinsons Dis. 2019;5(1) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41531-019-0074-8.

  10. Dorsey ER, Sherer T, Okum MS, Bloem BR. The emerging evidence of the Parkinson pandemic. J Park Dis. 2018;8(s1):S3–8.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Braak H, Del Tredici K, Rüb U, de Vos RA, Jansen Steur EN, Braak E. Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2003;24(2):197–211.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Braak H, Del Tredici K. Neuropathological staging of brain pathology in sporadic Parkinson’s disease: separating the wheat from the chaff. J Park Dis. 2017;7(s1):S71–85.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Mori F, Tanji K, Zhang H, Kakita A, Takahashi H. Wakabayashi K. alpha-synuclein pathology in the neostriatum in Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2008;115(4):453–9.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Zhang QS, Heng Y, Yan YH, Chen NH. Pathological α-synuclein exacerbates the progression of Parkinson’s disease through microglial activation. Toxicol Lett. 2017;265:30–7.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Vijitruth R, Liu M, Choi DY, Nguyen XV, Hunter RL, Bing G. Cyclooxygenase-2 mediates microglial activation and secondary dopaminergic cell death in the mouse MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease. J Neuroinflammation. 2006;3:6.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Leopold N, Kagel M. Pharyngoesophageal dysphagia in Parkinson’s disease. Dysphagia. 1997;12(1):11–8; discussion 19–20

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. Warnecke T, Suttrupa I, Schroder JB, Osadab N, Oelenberg S, Hamachera C, et al. Levodopa responsiveness of dysphagia in advanced Parkinson’s disease and reliability testing of the FEES levodopa test. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2016;28:100–6.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Warnecke T, Oelenberg S, Teismann I, Hamacher C, Lohmann H, Ringelstein EB, Dziewas R. Endoscopic characteristics and levodopa responsiveness of swallowing function in progressive supranuclear palsy. Mov Disord. 2010;25(9):1239–45.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  19. Reichmann H. Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Neurodegener Dis. 2010;7(5):284–90.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Brooks DJ. Parkinson’s disease: diagnosis. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18(Suppl 1):S31–3.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  21. Hughes KC, Gao X, Baker JM, Stephen C, Kim IY, Valeri L, Schwarzschild MA, Ascherio A. Non-motor features of Parkinson’s disease in a nested case-control study of US men. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2018;89(12):1288–95.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  22. Novakovic D, MacKay S. Adult obstructive sleep apnoea and the larynx. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;23(6):464–9.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. Dedhia RC, Rosen CA, Soose RJ. What is the role of the larynx in adult obstructive sleep apnea? Laryngoscope. 2014;124(4):1029–34.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  24. Crosta F, Desideri G, Marini C. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in Parkinson’s disase and other parkinsonisms. Funct Neurol. 2017;32(3):137–41.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  25. Bagheri H, Damase-Michel C, Lapeyre-Mestre M, Cismondo S, O’Connell D, Senat JM, et al. A study of salivary secretion in Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1999;22(4):213–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Sato H, Yamamoto T, Sato FY, Murata M. Dysphagia causes symptom fluctuations after oral L-dopa treatment in a patient with Parkinson disease. Case Rep Neurol. 2018;10(1):101–7.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  27. Mu L, Sobotka S, Chen J, Su H, Sanders I, Adler CH, et al. α-synuclein pathology and axonal degeneration of the peripheral motor nerves innervating pharyngeal muscles in Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013;72(2):119–29.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  28. Miles A, Jardine M, Johnston F, de Lisle M, Friary P, Allen J. Effect of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT®) on swallowing and cough function in people with Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci. 2017;383:180–7.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  29. Suttrup I, Warnecke T. Dysphagia in Parkinson’s disease. Dysphagia. 2016;31(1):24–32.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  30. Suttrup I, Suttrup J, Suntrup-Krueger S, Siemer ML, Bauer J, Hamacher C, et al. Esophageal dysfunction in different stages of Parkinson’s disease. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2017. https://doi.org/10.1111/nmo.12915. Epub ahead of print.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Derrey S, Chastan N, Maltete D, Verin E, Dechelotte P, Lefaucheur R, et al. Impact of deep brain stimulation on pharyngo-esophageal motility: a randomized cross-over study. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015;27(9):1214–22.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  32. Sung HY, Kim JS, Lee KS, Kim YI, Song IU, Chung SW, et al. The prevalence and patterns of pharyngoesophageal dysmotility in patients with early stage Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25(14):2361–8.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  33. El-Sharkawi A, Ramig L, Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Rademaker AW, Smith CH, et al. Swallowing and voice effects of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT): a pilot study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;72(1):31–6.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  34. Bachmann CG, Zapf A, Brunner E, Trenkwalder C. Dopaminergic treatment is associated with decreased body weight in patients with Parkinson’s disease and dyskinesias. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16(8):895–901.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. Sheard JM, Ash S, Silburn PA, Kerr GK. Prevalence of malnutrition in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(9):520–32.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  36. Plowman-Prine EK, Okun MS, Sapienza CM, Shrivastav R, Fernandez HH, Foote KD, et al. Perceptual characteristics of Parkinsonian speech: a comparison of the pharmacological effects of levodopa across speech and non-speech motor systems. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2009;24(2):131–44.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Moon S, Schmidt M, Smirnova IV, Colgrove Y, Liu W. Qigong exercise may reduce serum TNF-α levels and improve sleep in people with Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study. Medicines (Basel). 2017;4(2) https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4020023.

    PubMed Central  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Park A, Zid D, Russell J, Malone A, Rendon A, Wehr A, Li X. Effects of a formal exercise program on Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study using a delayed start design. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014;20(1):106–11.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  39. Fox CM, Ramig LO, Ciucci MR, Sapir S, McFarland DH, Farley BG. The science and practice of LSVT/LOUD: neural plasticity-principled approach to treating individuals with Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders. Semin Speech Lang. 2006;27(4):283–99.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  40. Sapir S, Ramig L, Fox C. The Lee Silverman Voice Treatment for voice, speech and other orofacial disorders in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Future Neurol. 2006;1:563–70.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  41. Sapir S, Spielman JL, Ramig LO, Story BH, Fox C. Effects of intensive voice treatment the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT) on vowel articulation in dysarthric individuals with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: acoustic and perceptual findings. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2007;50(4):899–912.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  42. Pitts T, Bolser D, Rosenbek J, Troche M, Okun M, Sapienza C. Impact of expiratory muscle strength training on voluntary cough and swallow function in Parkinson disease. Chest. 2009;135(5):1301–8.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  43. Johnson DN, Herring HJ, Daniels SK. Dysphagia management in stroke rehabilitation. Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep. 2014;2(4):207–18.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  44. Athukorala RP, Jones RD, Sella O, Huckabee ML. Skill training for swallowing rehabilitation in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014;95(7):1374–82.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  45. Troche MS, Okun MS, Rosenbek JC, Musson N, Fernandez HH, Rodriguez R, et al. Aspiration and swallowing in Parkinson disease and rehabilitation with EMST: a randomized trial. Neurology. 2010;75(21):1912–9.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  46. Park JS, Oh DH, Hwang NK, Lee JH. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with Parkinson’s disease and dysphagia: a randomized, single-blind placebo-controlled trial. NeuroRehabilitation. 2018;42(4):457–63.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  47. Troche MS, Rosenbek JC, Okun MS, Sapienza CM. Detraining outcomes with expiratory muscle strength training in Parkinson’s disease. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2014;51(2):305–10.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  48. Ludlow CL. Electrical neuromuscular stimulation in dysphagia: current status. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;18(3):159–64.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  49. Russell JA, Ciucci MR, Connor NP, Schallert T. Targeted exercise therapy for voice and swallow in persons with Parkinson’s disease. Brain Res. 2010;1341:3–11.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  50. Sapir S, Ramig LO, Fox CM. Intensive voice treatment in Parkinson’s disease: Lee Silverman voice treatment. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011;11(6):815–30.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  51. Ramig LO, Sapir S, Fox C. Changes in vocal loudness following intensive voice treatment (LSVT) in individuals with Parkinson’s disease: a comparison with untreated peoples and normal age-matched controls. Mov Disord. 2001;16(1):79–83.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  52. Ramig LO, Sapir S, Countryman S, Pawlas AA, O’Brien C, Hoehn M, Thompson LL. Intensive voice treatment (LSVT) for peoples with Parkinson's disease: a 2-year follow up. J Neurosurg Psychol. 2001;71(4):493–8.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  53. Ramig LO, Fox C, Sapir S. Parkinson’s disease: speech and voice disorders and their treatment with the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment. Semin Speech Lang. 2004;25(2):169–80.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Constantinescu G, Theodoros D, Russell T, Ward E, Wilson S, Wootton R. Treating disordered speech and voice in Parkinson’s disease online: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2011;46(1):1–16.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Manor Y, Posen J, Amir O, Dori N, Giladi N. A group intervention model for speech and communication skills in patients with Parkinson’s disease initial observations. Comm Dis Quart. 2005;26(2):94–101.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  56. Plourde JMH, Purdy SC, Moore C, Friary P, Brown R, McCann C. Gavel Club for people with aphasia: communication confidence and quality of communication life. Aphasiology. 2019;33(1):73–93.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  57. Fogg-Rogers L, Buetow S, Talmage A, McCann C, Leão SHS, Tippett L, et al. Choral singing therapy following stroke or Parkinson’s disease: an exploration of participants’ experiences. Disabil Rehabil. 2016;38(10):952–62.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  58. Seagall LE. The effect of group singing on the voice and swallow function of healthy, sedentary, older adults: a pilot study. Arts Psychother. 2017;55:40–5.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  59. Stegemoller EL, Radig H, Hibbing P, Wingate J, Sapienza C. Effects of singing on voice, respiratory control and quality of life in persons with Parkinson’s disease. Disabil Rehabil. 2017;39(6):594–600.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  60. Di Benedetto P, Cavazzon M, Mondolo F, Rugiu G, Peratoner A, Biasutti E. Voice and choral singing treatment: a new approach for speech and voice disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2009;45(1):13–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Han EY, Yn JY, Chong HJ, Choi KG. Individual therapeutic singing program for vocal quality and depression in Parkinson’s disease. J Mov Disord. 2018;11(3):121–8.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  62. Stegemoller EL, Hibbing P, Radig H, Wingate J. Therapeutic singing as an early intervention for swallowing in persons with Parkinson’s disease. Complement Ther Med. 2017;31:127–33.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  63. Elefant C, Baker FA, Lota M, Lagesen SK, Skeie GO. The effect of group music therapy on mood, speech, and singing in individuals with Parkinson’s disease – a feasibility study. J Music Ther. 2012;49(3):278–302.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  64. Mathew D, Sundar S, Subramaniam E, Parmar PN. Music therapy as a group singing improves Geriatric Depression Scale score and loneliness in institutionalised geriatric adults with mild depression: a randomised controlled study. Int J Educ Psychol Res. 2017;3(1):6–10.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Talmage A, Ludlam S, Leão S, Fogg-Rogers LA, Purdy SC. Leading the celebration choir: the choral singing therapy protocol and the role of the music therapist in a social singing group for adults with neurological conditions. NZ. J Music Ther. 2013;11:7–50.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Annus A, Vécsei L. Spotlight on opicapone as an adjunct to levodopa in Parkinson’s disease: design, development and potential place in therapy. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2017;11:143–51.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  67. Elkurd MT, Bahroo LB, Pahwa R. The role of extended-release amantadine for the treatment of dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease patients. Neurodegener Dis Manag. 2018;8(2):73–80.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  68. Radad K, Gille G, Rausch WD. Short review on dopamine agonists: insight into clinical and research studies relevant to Parkinson’s disease. Pharmacol Rep. 2005;57(6):701–12.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Ogawa T, Oyama G, Hattori N. Transdermal rotigotine patch in Parkinson’s disease with a history of intestinal operation. BMJ Case Rep. 2018; https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-223722.

  70. Dafotakis M, Sparing R, Juzek A, Block F, Kosinski CM. Transdermal dopaminergic stimulation with rotigotine in Parkinsonian akinetic crisis. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16(2):335–7.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  71. Hattori N, Hasegawa K, Sato K, Mitsuyama E, Numachi Y. Clinical evaluation of ropinirole controlled-release formulation at 18-24mg/day in Japanese patients with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2017;40:33–9.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  72. Olanow CW, Kieburtz K, Leinonen M, Elmer L, Giladi N, Hauser RA, et al. A randomized trial of low-dose Rasagiline and pramipexole combination (P2B001) in early Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2017;32(5):783–9.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  73. Cansino-Torres MA, Sandoval-Rodríguez V, Sáenz-Farrett M, Zúñiga-Ramírez C. Allergy to carbidopa. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2018;41(2):75–9.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  74. de Rus Jacquet A, Timmers M, Ma SY, Thieme A, McCabe GP, Vest JHC, et al. Lumbee traditional medicine: neuroprotective activities of medicinal plants used to treat Parkinson’s disease-related symptoms. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;206:408–25.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  75. Schneeberger A, Mandler M, Mattner F, Schmidt W. Vaccination for Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012;18(Suppl 1):S11–3.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  76. Oad MA, Miles A, Lee A, Lambie A. Medicine administration in people with Parkinson’s disease in New Zealand: an interprofessional, stakeholder-driven online survey. Dysphagia. 2019;34(1):119–28.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  77. Patel K. Optimising medication for Parkinson’s disease patients with dysphagia. Br J Community Nurs. 2015;20(7):322–6.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  78. Foppa AA, Chemello C, Vargas-Peláez CM, Farias MR. Medication therapy management service for patients with Parkinson’s disease: a before-and-after study. Neurol Ther. 2016;5(1):85–99.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  79. Triadafilopoulos G, Gandhy R, Barlow C. Pilot cohort study of endoscopic botulinum neurotoxin injection in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2017;44:33–7.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  80. Tate P, Pandey S. Botulinum toxin in movement disorders. Neurol India. 2018;66(Suppl 1):79–89.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Born LJ, Hamed RH, Rikkers LF, Pfeiffer RF, Quigley EM. Cricopharyngeal dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: role in dysphagia and response to myotomy. Mov Disord. 1996;11(1):53–8.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  82. Olchik MR, Ghisi M, Ayres A, Schuh AFS, Oppitz PP, de Mello Rieder CR. The impact of deep brain stimulation on the quality of life and swallowing in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;22(2):125–9.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  83. Xie T, Bloom L, Padmanaban M, Bertacchi B, Kang W, MacCracken E, et al. Long-term effect of low frequency stimulation of STN on dysphagia, freezing of gait and other motor symptoms in PD. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2018;89(9):989–94.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jacqui E. Allen .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Allen, J.E., Miles, A. (2020). Parkinson Disease. In: Weissbrod, P., Francis, D. (eds) Neurologic and Neurodegenerative Diseases of the Larynx. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28852-5_12

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28852-5_12

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-28851-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-28852-5

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)