Ex Situ Conservation of Potato [Solanum Section Petota (Solanaceae)] Genetic Resources in Genebanks

  • David EllisEmail author
  • Alberto Salas
  • Oswaldo Chavez
  • Rene Gomez
  • Noelle Anglin


Conserving the genetic diversity of potato is critical for the long-term future of potato improvement programs. Further, it is the social and ethical responsibility of the present generation to ensure future generations have the same opportunities to use, exploit, and benefit from the genetic diversity that exists today. Genebanks and the ex situ conservation of potato genetic resources are the only way to ensure this happens; in situ conservation plays a complementary role, but it can never ensure that the vast diversity that exists on earth today is still there for use in the future. Material in ex situ genebanks not only serve as a reservoir of ready-to-use genetic material when needed but also provide invaluable tools for research now and in the future of cultivated potato and its wild relatives.


  1. Aguilar AM (2016) Informe final de siembra de papas nativas repatriadas en la comunidad capesina de Santa Cruz de Pichiu, Chana, Huari, Ancash, 51pGoogle Scholar
  2. Anoumaa M, Yao NK, Kouam EB, Kanmegne G, Machuka E, Osama SK, Nzuki I, Kamga YB, Fonkou T, Omokolo DN (2017) Genetic diversity and core collection for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from Cameroon as revealed by SSR markers. Am J Potato Res 94:449–463Google Scholar
  3. Arif IA, Bakir MA, Khan HA, Al Farhan AH, Al Homaidan AA, Bahkali AH, Al Sadoon M, Shobrak M (2010) A brief review of molecular techniquest to assess plant diversity. Int J Mol Sci 11:2079–2096PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Asano K, Tamiya S (2016) Breeding of pest and disease resistant potato cultivars in Japan using classical and molecular approaches. Jpn Agric Res Q 50(1):1–6Google Scholar
  5. Bajaj YPS (1977) Initiation of shoots and callus from potato-tuber sprouts and axillary buds frozen at −196 °C. Crop Improv 4:48–53Google Scholar
  6. Bale JS, Masters GJ, Hodkinson ID, Awmack C, bezemer TM, Brown VK, Bitterfield J, Buse A, Coulson JC, Farrer J, Good JEG, Harrington R, Hartley S, Jones TM, Lindroth RL, Press MC, Symrnooudis I, Watt AD, Whittaker JB (2002) Herbivory in global climate change research: direct effects of rising temperatures on insect herbivores. Glob Chang Biol 8:1–16Google Scholar
  7. Bamberg J, del Rio A (2011) Use of native potatoes for research and breeding. Hortscience 46(11):1444–1445Google Scholar
  8. Bamberg J, del Rio A, Moreyra R (2009) Genetic consequences of clonal versus seed sampling in model populations of two wild potato species indigenous to the USA. Am J Potato Res 86:367–372Google Scholar
  9. Bamberg J, del Rio A, Fernandez C, Salas A, Vega S, Zorrilla C, Roca W, Tay D (2010) Comparison of “remote” versus “easy” in situ collection locations for USA wild solanum (potato) germplasm. Am J Potato Res 87:277–284. Scholar
  10. Bamberg JB, del Rio A, Huamán Z, Vega S, Salas A, Pavek J, Fernandez C, Spooner DM (2003) A decade of collecting and research on wild potatoes of the Southwest USA. Am J Potato Res 80:159–172Google Scholar
  11. Beed F (2011) The impact of climate change on interdependence for microbial genetic resources for agriculture. In: Fujisaka S, Williams D, Halewood M (eds) The impact of climate change on countries interdependence on genetic resources for food and agriculture. Background Study Paper No. 48. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Italy, pp 38–47Google Scholar
  12. Berdugo-Cely J, Valbuena RI, Sanchez-Betancourt E, Barrero LS, Yockteng R (2017) Genetic diversity and association mapping in the Colombian central collection of Solanum tuberosum L. Andigenum group using SNP markers. PLoS One 12(3):e0173039. Scholar
  13. Bertioli DJ, Ozias-Akins P, Chu Y, Dantas KM, Santos SP, Gouvea E, Guimaraes PM, Leal-Bertioli SC, Knapp SJ, Moretzsohn MC (2014) The use of SNP markers for linkage mapping in diploid and tetraploid peanuts. G3 (Bethesda) 4:89–96Google Scholar
  14. Bosch FVD, Jeger MJ, Gilligan CA (2007) Disease control and its selection for damaging plant virus strains in vegetatively propagated staple food crops; a theoretical assessment. Proc R Soc [Biol] 247:11–18Google Scholar
  15. Brown CR, Mojtahedi H, Santo GS (1991) Resistance to Columbia root-knot nematode in Solanum spp. and in hybrids of S. hougasii with tetraploid cultivated potato. Am Potato J 68:445–452Google Scholar
  16. Cabello R, De Mendiburu F, Bonierbale M, Monneveux P, Roca W, Chujoy E (2012) Large-scale evaluation of potato improved varieties, genetic stocks and landraces for drought tolerance. Am J Potato Res 89:400–410Google Scholar
  17. Carputo D, Alioto D, Aversano R, Garramone R, Miraglia V, Villano C, Frusciante L (2013) Genetic diversity among potato species as revealed by phenotypic resistances and SSR markers. Plant Genetic Resources 11(2): 131–139. Scholar
  18. Castañeda-Álvarez NP, de Haan S, Juárez H, Khoury CK, Achicanoy HA, Sosa CC, Bernau V, Salas A, Heider B, Simon R, Maxted N, Spooner D (2015) Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (Solanum L. Section Petota). PLos One 10(14):e0122599PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Clevenger JP, Ozias-Akin P (2015) SWEEP: a tool for filtering high quality SNPs in polyploid crops. G3 (Bethesda) 5:1797–1803Google Scholar
  20. Collares EAS, Choer E, Pereira AS (2004) Characterization of potato genotypes using molecular markers. Pesqui Agropecu Bras 39:871–878Google Scholar
  21. Correll DS (1962) The potato and its wild relatives. Contributions from the Texas Research Foundation 4, p 606. Texas Research Foundation, Renner, TexasGoogle Scholar
  22. De Bruyn A, Villemot J, Lefeuvre P, Villar E, Hoareau M, Harimalala M, Abdoul-Karime AL, Abdou-Chakour C, Reynaud B, Harkins GW, Varsani A, Martin DP, Lett J-M (2012) East African cassava mosaic-like viruses from Africa to Indian Ocean islands: molecular diversity, evolutionary history and geographical dissemination of a bipartite begomovirus. BMC Evol Biol 228(12):228–246Google Scholar
  23. del Rio AH, Bamberg JB, Huaman Z, Salas A, Vega SE (1997) Assessing changes in the genetic diversity of potato gene banks. 2. In situ vs ex situ. Theor Appl Genet 95:199–204Google Scholar
  24. del Rio AH, Bamberg JB, Huaman Z, Salas A, Vega SE (2001) Association of ecogeographical variables and RAPD marker variation in wild potato populations of the USA. Crop Sci 41:870–878Google Scholar
  25. Douches D, Hirsch CN, Manrique-Carpintero NC, Massa AN, Coombs J, Hardigan M, Bisognin D, De Jong W, Buell CR (2014) The contribution of the Solanaceae coordinated agricultural project to potato breeding. Potato Res 57:215–224Google Scholar
  26. Ellis D, Chavez O, Coombs J, Soto J, Gomez R, Douches D, Panta A, Silvestre R, Anglin NL (2018) Genetic identity in genebanks: application of the SolCap 12K SNP array in fingerprinting the global in trust potato collection. Genome 61:523–537PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. FAO (2010) The second report on the state of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. FAO, Rome, 368pGoogle Scholar
  28. FAO (ed) (2014) Genebank standards for plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, rev edn. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  29. Felcher KJ, Coombs JJ, Massa AN, Hansey CN, Hamilton JP, Veilleux RE, Buell CR, Douches DS (2012) Integration of two diploid potato linkage maps with the potato genome sequence. PLoS One 12:e36347Google Scholar
  30. Fuentes XC (2014) Conserving the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potatoes. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL, 229p, ISBN 978-94-6257-168-67Google Scholar
  31. Ghislain M, Nunez J, Herrera MDR, Pignataro J, Guzman F, Bonierbale M, Spooner DM (2009) Robust and highly informative microsatellite based genetic identity kit for potato. Mol Breed 23:377–388Google Scholar
  32. Global Strategy for Ex situ Conservation of Potato 2006.
  33. Grobman A, Bonavia D, Dillehay TD, Pipernod DR, Iriartef J, Holst I (2012) Preceramic maize from Paredones and Huaca Prieta, Peru. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(5):1755–1759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Grout BWW, Henshaw GG (1978) Freeze preservation of potato shoot-tip cultures. Ann Bot 42:1227–1229Google Scholar
  35. Hamilton JP, Hansey CN, Whitty BR, Stoffel K, Massa AN, Deynze AV, De Jong WS, Douches DS, Buell CR (2011) Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite North American potato germplasm. BMC Genomics 12:302PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Hardigan MA, Bamberg J, Buell CR, Douches DS (2015) Taxonomy and genetic differentiation among wild and cultivated germplasm of Solanum sect Petota. Plant Genome 1:16–270Google Scholar
  37. Hawkes JG (1958) Significance of wild species and primitive forms for potato breeding. Euphytica 7:257–270Google Scholar
  38. Hawkes JG (1989) Nomenclatural and taxonomic notes on the infrageneric taxa of the tuber-bearing solanums (Solanaceae). Taxon 39(3):489–492Google Scholar
  39. Hawkes JG (1990) The potato: evolution, biodiversity and genetic resources. Belhaven Press, London, 259pGoogle Scholar
  40. Hawkes JG (1994) Origins of cultivated potatoes and species relationships. In: Bradshaw JE, MacKay GR (eds) Potato genetics. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 3–42Google Scholar
  41. Hijmans RJ, Spooner DM (2001) Geographic distribution of wild potato species. Am J Bot 88(11):2101–2112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hirsch CN, Hirsch CD, Felcher K, Coombs J, Zarka D, Deynze AV, Jong WD, Veilleux RE, Jansky S, Bethke P, Douches DS, Buell CR (2013) Retrospective view of North American potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding in the 20th and 21st centuries. G3 (Bethesda) 3:1003–1013. Scholar
  43. Hoque ME, Huq H, Moon NJ (2013) Molecular diversity analysis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) through RAPD markers. SAARC J Agric 11:95–102Google Scholar
  44. International Potato Center (1973–1974) Germplasm exploration and taxonomy of potatoes. In: Program planning conferences 1973–74, Lima, Perú, pp 5–48Google Scholar
  45. International Potato Center (1976) Report of the planning conferences on the exploration and maintenance of germplasm resources, Lima, Peru, Marzo 15–19, 1976, 130pGoogle Scholar
  46. International Potato Center (1979) Report of the planning conferences on the exploration, taxonomy and maintenance of potato germplasm III. CIP, Lima, Peru, 193pGoogle Scholar
  47. Jansky SH, Simon R, Spooner DM (2009) A test of taxonomic predictability: resistance to Colorado potato beetle in wild relatives of potato. J Econ Entomol 102:442–431Google Scholar
  48. Jansky SH, Dempewolf H, Camadro EL, Simon R, Zimnoch-Guzowska E, Bisognin DA, Bonierbale M (2013) A case for crop wild relative preservation and use in potato. Crop Sci 53:746–754Google Scholar
  49. Jarvis A, Ramirez J, Hansen J, Leibing C (2011) Crop and forage genetic resources: international interdependence in the face of climate change. In: Fujisaka S, Williams D, Halewood M (eds) The impact of climate change on countries interdependence on genetic resources for food and agriculture. Background Study Paper No. 48. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Italy, pp 7–83Google Scholar
  50. Jones RAC (1982) Tests for transmission of four potato viruses through potato true seed. Ann Appl Biol 100:315–320Google Scholar
  51. Kaczmarczyk A, Rokka V-M, Keller ERJ (2011) Potato shoot tip cryopreservation. A review. Potato Res 54:45–79. Scholar
  52. Khan AJ, Akhtar S, Al-Matrushi AM, Briddon RW (2012) Introduction of East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus to Oman harks back to “Zanzibar, the capital of Oman”. Virus Genes 46(1):195–198. Scholar
  53. Kinder DH, Adams KR, Wilson HJ (2017) Solanum Jamesii: evidence for cultivation of wild potato tubers by ancestral Puebloan groups. J Ethnobiol 37(2):218–240Google Scholar
  54. Kreuze J (2014) siRNA deep sequencing and assembly: piecing together viral infections. In: Gullino ML, Bonants PJM (eds) Detection and diagnostics of plant pathogens, plant pathology in the 21st century, vol 5. Springer, Dordrecht, 200p. Scholar
  55. Kuun GK, Okole B, Bornmann L (2001) Protection of phenypropanoid metabolism by prior heat treatment in Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Physiol Biochem 39:871–880Google Scholar
  56. LaFramboise T (2009) Single nucleotide polymorphism arrays: a decade of biological, computational and technological advances. Nucleic Acids Res 37:4181–4193PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Legg JP, Jeremiah SC, Obiero HM, Maruthi MN, Ndyetabula I, Okao-Okuja G, Bouwmeester H, Bigirimana S, Tata-Hangy W, Gashaka G, Mkamilo G, Alicai T, Kumar LP (2011) Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa. Virus Res 159(2):161–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Logan-Young CJ, Yu JZ, Verma SK, Percy RG, Pepper AE (2015) SNP discovery in complex allotetraploid genomes (Gossypium spp., Malvaceae) using genotyping by sequencing. Appl Plant Sci 3:1400077. Scholar
  59. Loskutov IG (1999) Vavilov and his institute. A history of the world collection of plant genetic resources in Russia. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. ISBN 92-9043-412-0Google Scholar
  60. Louderback LA, Pavlik BM (2017) Starch granule evidence for the earliest potato use in North America. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114(29):7606–7610PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Love SL (1999) Founding clones, major contributing ancestors, and exotic progenitors of prominent North American potato cultivars. Am J Potato Res 76:263–272Google Scholar
  62. Machida-Hirano R (2015) Diversity in potato genetic resources. Breed Sci 65:26–40PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Mammadov J, Aggarwal R, Buyyarapu R, Kumpatla S (2012) SNP markers and their impact on plant breeding. Int J Plant Genomics 2012:728398. Scholar
  64. Manrique-Carpintero NC, Tokuhisa JG, Ginzberg I, Holliday JA, Veilleux RE (2013) Sequence diversity in coding regions of candidate genes in the glycoalkaloid biosynthetic pathway of wild potato species. G3 (Bethesda) 3:1467–1479PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Manrique-Carpintero NC, Tokuhisa JG, Ginzberg I, Veilleux RE (2014) Allelic variation in genes contributing to glycoalkaloid biosynthesis in a diploid interspecific population of potato. Theor Appl Genet 127:391–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ochoa CM (1962) Los Solanun Tuberiferos silvestres del Peru Secc. Tubernarium, sub-secc. Hyperbasarthrum), Lima, PeruGoogle Scholar
  67. Ochoa CM (1980a) New taxa of Solanum from Peru and Bolivia. Phytologia 46(4):223–225Google Scholar
  68. Ochoa CM (1980b) New tuber-bearing Solanum from Colombia. Phytologia 46(7):495–497. ISSN 0031-9430Google Scholar
  69. Ochoa CM (1980c) Solanum peloquinianum: a new wild potato species from the Peruvian Andes. Am Potato J 57(1):33–35Google Scholar
  70. Ochoa CM (1981a) [Solanum chilliasense, a new tuber bearing species of the Series Piurana]. Solanum chilliasense, nueva especie tuberifera de la serie Piurana. Lorentzia (Argentina) 4:9–11Google Scholar
  71. Ochoa CM (1981b) [Solanum taulisense, a new Peruvian tuber bearing species]. Solanum taulisense, nueva especie tuberifera peruana. Lorentzia (Argentina). 4:13–15Google Scholar
  72. Ochoa CM (1981c) Solanum irosinum, new Peruvian tuber bearing species resistant to Phytophthora infestans. Am Potato J 58(3):131–133. ISSN 0003-0589Google Scholar
  73. Ochoa CM (1981d) Two new tuber-bearing Solanum from South America. Phytologia 48:229–232Google Scholar
  74. Ochoa CM (1983a) Solanum bombycinum, a new tuber-bearing tetraploid species from Bolivia. Am Potato J 60(11):849–852. ISSN 0003-0589Google Scholar
  75. Ochoa CM (1983b) Solanum neovavilovii: a new wild potato species from Bolivia. Am Potato J 60(12):919–923. ISSN 0003-0589Google Scholar
  76. Ochoa CM (1987) Solanum longiusculus (Sect. petota), nova specie peruviana. Phytologia 63(5):329–330. ISSN 0031-9430Google Scholar
  77. Ochoa CM (1988a) [Solanum sarasarae (Sect. Petota), a new species from Perú]. Solanum sarasarae (Sect. Petota), nova specie peruviana. Phytologia 64(4):245–246Google Scholar
  78. Ochoa CM (1988b) Solanum bill-hookeri: new wild potato species from Peru. Am Potato J 65(12):737–740Google Scholar
  79. Ochoa CM (1989a) [Solanum Ser. Simplicissima, new serie Tuberifera of Sect. Petota (Solanaceae)]. Solanum Ser. Simplicissima, nueva serie Tuberifera de la Sect. Petota (Solanaceae). Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 17(65):321–323. ISSN 0370-3908Google Scholar
  80. Ochoa CM (1989b) Solanum amayanum: a new wild Peruvian potato species. Am Potato J 66(1):1–4. ISSN 0003-0589Google Scholar
  81. Ochoa CM (1989c) Solanum salasianum: new wild tuber-bearing species from Peru. Am Potato J 66(4):235–238. ISSN 0003-0589Google Scholar
  82. Ochoa CM (1990) The potatoes of South America: Bolivia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 512p. ISBN 0-521-38024-3Google Scholar
  83. Ochoa CM (1998) Solanum ortegae: a new Peruvian species from Sect. petota. Phytologia 85(4):271–272. ISSN 0031-9430Google Scholar
  84. Ochoa CM (1999) Las papas de Sudamérica: Perú (parte 1). Allen Press, Kansas, 1036p. ISBN 92-9060-197-3Google Scholar
  85. Ochoa CM (2004) The potatoes of South America: Peru The wild species, part 1. International Potato Center, Peru, 1036p. ISBN 9290601981Google Scholar
  86. Perez W, Salas A, Raymundo R, Huaman Z, Nelson R, Bonierbale M (2001) Evaluation of wild potato species for resistance to Late Blight. In: Scientist and farmer, partners in research for the 21st century, Program Report International Potato Center, Lima, Peru, 480pGoogle Scholar
  87. Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium (2011) Genome sequence and analysis of the tuber crop potato. Nature 475:189–195Google Scholar
  88. Reed BM (2008) Cryopreservation—practical considerations. In: Reed BM (ed) Plant cryopreservation a practical guide. Springer Science, New York, 513pGoogle Scholar
  89. Ristaino JB, Pfister DH (2016) “What a painfully interesting Subject”: Charles Darwin’s studies of potato late blight. BioScience 66(12):1035–1045Google Scholar
  90. Rocha EA, Paiva LV, de Carvalho HH, Guimaraes CT (2010) Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of potato cultivars using SSR and RAPD markers. Crop Breed Appl Biotechnol 10:204–210Google Scholar
  91. Rumold CU, Aldenderfer MS (2016) Late archaic–early formative period microbotanical evidencefor potato at Jiskairumoko in the Titicaca Basin of southern Peru. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 13(48):13672–13677Google Scholar
  92. Ryoko M-H (2015) Diversity in potato genetic resources. Breed Sci 65:26–40Google Scholar
  93. Salimi H, bahar M, Mirlohi A, Talebi M (2016) Assessment of the genetic diversity among potato cultivars from different geographical áreas using the genomic and EST microsatellites. Iran J Biotechnol 14:270–277PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Di Santo M, Tarozzi N, Nadalini N, Borini A. (2012) Human sperm cryopreservation: Update on techniques, effect on DNA integrity, and implications for ART. Adv Urol 2012:854837. Scholar
  95. Sastry KS, Zitter TA (2014) Plant virus and viroid diseases in the tropics, volume 2: epidemiology and management. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 149–480. Scholar
  96. Semagn K, Bjornstad A, Ndjiondjop MN (2006) An overview of molecular marker methods for plants. Afr J Biotechnol 5:2540–2568Google Scholar
  97. Spooner DM, Salas Lopez A, Huaman Z, Hijmans RJ (1999) Wild potato collecting expedition in southern Peru (Department of Apurimac, Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno, Tacna) in 1998: taxonomy and new genetic resources. Am J Potato Res 76(3):103–119. ISSN 1099-209XGoogle Scholar
  98. Spooner DM, Salas AR, Huaman Z, Torres Maita RV, Hoekstra R, Schuler K, Hijmans RJ (2001) Taxonomy and new collections of wild potato species in central and southern Perú. Am J Potato Res 78(3):197–208. ISSN 1099-209XGoogle Scholar
  99. Spooner DM, McLean K, Ramsay G, Waugh R, Bryan GJ (2005) A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:14694–14699PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Spooner DM, Nunez J, Trujillo G, Herrera MDR, Guzman F, Ghislain M (2007) Extensive simple sequence repeat genotyping of potato landraces supports a major reevaluation of their gene pool structure and classification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19398–19403PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Spooner DM, Ghislain M, Simon R, Jansky SH, Gavrilenko T (2014) Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes. Bot Rev 80:283–383. Scholar
  102. Stich B, Urbany C, Hoffmann P, Gebhardt C (2013) Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in diploid and tetraploid potato revealed by genome wide high density genotyping using the SolCap SNP array. Plant Breed 132:718–724Google Scholar
  103. Towill LE (1981a) Solanum etuberosum—a model for studying the cryobiology of shoot-tips in the tuberbearing Solanum species. Plant Sci Lett 20:315–324Google Scholar
  104. Towill LE (1981b) Survival at low temperatures of shoot-tips from cultivars of Solanum tuberosum group Tuberosum. CryoLett 2:373–382Google Scholar
  105. Tung PX, Hermsen JG, Zaag P, Vander S, Schmiedche P (1992) Effects of heat tolerance on expression of resistance to Pseudomonas solanacearum in potato. Potato Res 35:321–328Google Scholar
  106. Valkonen JPT, Pehu E, Watanabe K (1992) Symptom expression and seed transmission of alfalfa mosaic virus and potato yellowing virus (SB-22) in Solanum brevidens and Setuberosum. Potato Res 35:403–410Google Scholar
  107. Volk GM, Wadell J, Bonnart R, Towill L, Ellis D, Lauffman M (2008) High viability of dormant Malus buds after 10 years of storage in liquid nitrogen vapour. CryoLetters 29:89–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Vollmer R, Villagaray R, Egúsquiza V, Cardenas JE, Castro M, Chavez O, Anglin NA, Ellis D (2017) A large-scale viability assessment of the potato cryobank at the International Potato Center (CIP). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 53(4):309–317. Scholar
  109. Watanabe KN, Kikuchi A, Shimazaki T, Asahima M (2011) Salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic potatoes and wild species. Potato Res 54:319–324Google Scholar
  110. Wilkinson K, Grant WP, Green LE, Hunter S, Jeger MJ, Lowe P, Medley GF, Mills P, Philipson J, Poppy GM, Waage J (2011) Infectious diseases of animals and plants: an interdisciplinary approach. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 366(1573):1933–1942Google Scholar
  111. Xiaoyan S, Chunzhi Z, Ying L, Shuangshuang F, Qing Y, Sanwen H (2016) SSR analysis of genetic diversity among 192 diploid potato cultivars. Hortic Plant J 2:163–171Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Ellis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alberto Salas
    • 1
  • Oswaldo Chavez
    • 1
  • Rene Gomez
    • 1
  • Noelle Anglin
    • 1
  1. 1.International Potato CenterLimaPeru

Personalised recommendations