Skip to main content

Comparing Doctoral Education in China and Finland: An Institutional Logics Perspective

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Nordic-Chinese Intersections within Education

Abstract

This chapter explores and compares the institutional logics of Chinese and Finnish doctoral education systems through on-desk research of secondary data. Findings show that in both Chinese and Finnish doctoral education systems, there are five underlying institutional logics, namely state logic, profession logic, family logic, market logic and corporation logic; however, the differences lie in which of them are more dominant, and how they interact with each other. Findings also indicate that, to a large extent, the logics underlying Finnish and Chinese systems are compatible, and can serve as a solid foundation for developing cooperation between both countries. Based on the findings, we contend that in cooperation practice, stakeholders and practitioners in the cooperation need to be aware of the differences of logics.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Ahola, S. (2007). Doctoral education in Finland: Between traditionalism and modernity. In S. Powell & H. Green (Eds.), The doctorate worldwide (pp. 29–39). Berkshire, UK and New York: The Society for Research into Higher Education, Open University Press and McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alford, R. R., & Friedland, R. (1985). Power of theory: Capitalism, the state and democracy. Cambridge, New York and Victoria: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Bray, M., & Gui, Q. (2001). Comparative education in Greater China: Contexts, characteristics, contrasts and contributions. Comparative Education, 37(4), 451–473. https://doi.org/10.1080/03050060120091256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cai, Y. (2013). Graduate employability: A conceptual framework for understanding employers’ perceptions. Higher Education, 65(4), 457–469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-012-9556-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cai, Y., & Hölttä, S. (2014). Towards appropriate strategies for international cooperation with Chinese higher education: The Finnish case. In Y. Cai & S. Hölttä (Eds.), Transformation of higher education in innovation systems in China and Finland (pp. 323–342). Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press and the Authors.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cai, Y., & Kivistö, J. (2011). Higher education reforms in Finland and China: Experiences and challenges in post-massification era. Tampere: Tampere University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cai, Y., & Kohtamäki, V. (Eds.). (2014). Transformation of higher education in innovation systems in China and Finland. Tampere: Tampere University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cai, Y., & Mehari, Y. (2015). The use of institutional theory in higher education research. In J. Huisman & M. Tight (Eds.), Theory and method in higher education research III (pp. 1–25). Bingley: Emerald.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cai, Y., & Yan, F. (2015). Demands and responses in Chinese higher education. In S. Schwartzman, R. Pinheiro, & P. Pillay (Eds.), Higher education in the BRICS countries: Investigating the pact between higher education and society (pp. 149–169). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9570-8_8

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Cai, Y., & Zheng, G. (2016). University academic promotion system and academic identity: An institutional logics perspective. In L. Leisyte & U. Wilkesmann (Eds.), Organizing academic work: Teaching, learning, and identities (1st ed., pp. 243–261). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen, H. (2010). Transformation of knowledge production and quality crisis of doctoral education. Journal of Higher Education, 31(1), 57–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • China Academic Degrees and Graduate Education Development Center. (2014). Chronicle of events in Chinese academic degree and graduate education development. Retrieved from http://www.cdgdc.edu.cn/xwyyjsjyxx/xwbl/dsj/280886.shtml

  • China Academic Degrees and Graduate Education Development Center. (2016a). Chinese academic degrees management structure. Retrieved from http://www.cdgdc.edu.cn/xwyyjsjyxx/xwbl/gltz/gltz/260207.shtml

  • China Academic Degrees and Graduate Education Development Center. (2016b). National random check of doctoral education dissertations. Retrieved from http://www.cdgdc.edu.cn/xwyyjsjyxx/zlpj/bslwccps/

  • China’s quality assessment group for doctoral education. (2010). China’s doctoral education quality report. Beijing, China: Peking University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crossley, M., & Jarvis, P. (2001). Introduction: Context matters. Comparative Education, 37(4), 405–408.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delamont, S., Atkinson, P., & Parry, O. (2000). The doctoral experience: Success and failure in graduate school. London and New York: Falmer Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • European University Association. (2010). Salzburg II recommendations: European universities’ achievements since 2005 in implementing the Salzburg principles. Retrieved from http://www.eua.be/cde/publications.aspx

  • Friedland, R., & Alford, R. R. (1991). Bringing society back in: Symbols, practices, and institutional contradictions. In W. W. Powell & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis (pp. 232–263). Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gu, Y., & Chen, H. (2007). Control the size of doctoral education. Academic Degree and Graduation Education, 1, 30–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guo, J. (2009). Expansion of doctoral education, quality distribution and quality assurance of doctorate in Chinese universities: A perspective of the institutionalism. Peking University Education Review, 7(2), 21–46. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-9468.2009.02.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guo, X. (2003). Chinese higher education development: Through key units’ development. Academic Degree and Graduation Education, 11, 2–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haila, K., Karinen, R., Kaihovaara, A., Eronen, A., & Haapakorpi, A. (2016). Employment situation of people with PhDs (Miten tohtorit työllistyvät) (Publications of the Ministry on Education and Culture No. 3). Ministry of Education and Culture, Finland. ISBN978-952-263-388-0

    Google Scholar 

  • Hakala, J. (2009). Socialization of junior researchers in new academic research environments: Two case studies from Finland. Studies in Higher Education, 34(5), 501–516. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070802597119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Han, Q. (2010). Internationalization of Chinese doctoral education: Strategic analysis. Master monograph, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (1929759).

    Google Scholar 

  • Hölttä, S., Jansson, T., & Kivistö, J. (2010). Emerging markets in the Finnish system. In R. Brown (Ed.), Higher education and the market (pp. 123–134). New York and Oxon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kivistö, J. (2011). Developing doctoral education in EU and in Finland: Using the U.S. system as a benchmark. In Y. Cai & J. Kivistö (Eds.), Higher education reforms in Finland and China (pp. 193–210). Tampere: Tampere University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuoppala, K., Pekkola, E., Kivistö, J., Siekkinen, T., & Hölttä, S. (Eds.). (2015). Tietoyhteiskunnan työläinen: Suomalaisen akateemisen projektitutkijan työ ja toimintaympäristö. Tampere: Tampere University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leisyte, L., & Dee, J. R. (2012). Understanding academic work in a changing institutional environment: Faculty autonomy, productivity, and the identity in Europe and the United States. In J. C. Smart & M. B. Paulsen (Eds.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research, higher education: Handbook of theory and research 27 (pp. 123–206). Springer Science+Business Media B.V. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2950-6_3

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Lepori, B. (2016). Universities as hybrids: Applications of institutional logics theory to higher education. In Theory and method in higher education research (pp. 245–264). Emerald. https://doi.org/10.1108/s2056-375220160000002013

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Li, Y. (2002). New relationship between teachers and students in China. Journal of Southwest University for Nationalities, Philosophy and Social Sciences, 23(9), 233–235.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu, X. (2016). Doubts on Chinese politicians’ high-level academic profiles. People’s Tribune, 7, 67.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu, Z., & Luo, Y. (2015). Predicaments and countermeasures in doctoral education in the background of knowledge transformation. Journal of Graduate Education, 3, 38–49.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ma, W. (2007). The trajectory of Chinese doctoral education and scientific research. Research and Occasional Paper Series: CEHE.12.07, 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ministry of Education and Culture of Finland. (2015). University core funding from 2015. Retrieved from http://www.minedu.fi/export/sites/default/OPM/Koulutus/yliopistokoulutus/hallinto_ohjaus_ja_rahoitus/liitteet/uni_funding_model_2015.pdf

  • Ministry of Education of China. (2005). Announcement of regular assessment of institutions that are approved to provide bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral education. Retrieved from http://www.moe.edu.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/moe_840/201002/82748.html

  • Ministry of Education of China. (2014). National regulations on doctoral student recruitment (since 2014). Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/s3114/201404/167125.html

  • Ministry of Education of China. (2016). Overview of national educational system development in 2015. Retrieved from http://www.moe.edu.cn/srcsite/A03/s180/moe_633/201607/t20160706_270976.html

  • Ministry of Education of China, National Development and Reform Sector of China & Ministry of Finance of China. (2013). Policies about deepen the graduate education reform in China. Retrieved from http://www.moe.edu.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/A22_zcwj/201307/154118.html

  • Ministry of Finance of the People’s Republic of China. (2013). Ideas about the improvement of the financial support system for postgraduate education in China. Retrieved from http://jkw.mof.gov.cn/zhengwuxinxi/zhengcefabu/201303/t20130301_743904.html

  • Nummenmaa, A., Pyhältö, K., & Soini, T. (Eds.). (2008). Hyvä tohtori, Tohtorikoulutuksen rakenteita ja prosesseja. Tampere: Tampere University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Office of the State Council Academic Degrees Committee of China. (1980). The People’ Republic of China regulations on academic degrees. Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.cn/s78/A02/zfs__left/s5911/moe_619/tnull_1315.html

  • Pekkola, E., & Kivistö, J. (2012). Reforming the Finnish university system: Policies and institutional responses. In S. Bergan, E. Egron-Polak, J. Kohler, L. Purser, & A. Spyropoulou (Eds.), Leadership and governance in higher education: Handbook for decision-makers and administrators (pp. 87–105). Berlin: Raabe.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peng, A. (2009). Changes and reforms on doctoral candidates’ financial aid system in China. Academic Degrees & Graduate Education, 5, 18–22. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1001-960X.2009.05.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peng, A. (2011a). Doctoral students’ financial situation survey. Modern Education Management, 1, 105–109.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peng, A. (2011b). An empirical study of factors influencing the amounts of doctoral financial aid. Journal of Graduate Education, 5, 17–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Slaughter, S., & Leslie, L. L. (2001). Expanding and elaborating the concept of academic capitalism. Organization, 8(2), 154–161. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508401082003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sun, Y., & Liang, J. (2009). Doctoral education reform in China in the context of higher education internationalisation. Heilongjiang Researches on Higher Education, 9(185), 94–96.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thornton, P. H. (2004). Markets from culture: Institutional logics and organizational decisions in higher education publishing (1st ed.). Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thornton, P. H., & Ocasio, W. (1999). Institutional logics and the historical contingency of power in organizations: Executive succession in the higher education publishing industry, 1958–1990. American Journal of Sociology, 105(3), 801–843. https://doi.org/10.1086/210361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thornton, P. H., Ocasio, W., & Lounsbury, M. (2012). The institutional logics perspective: A new approach to culture, structure and process. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Vipunen Education Statistics Finland. (2016). Students and degrees. Retrieved from https://vipunen.fi/en-gb/university/Pages/Opiskelijat-ja-tutkinnot.aspx

  • Wang, J. (2008). The development and changes of Chinese graduate school education under globalisation. China Mainland Studies, 51(1), 67–95.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang, R. (2011). Self and the other in the Confucian cultural context: Implications of China’s higher education development for comparative studies. International Review of Education/Internationale Zeitschrift Für Erziehungswissenschaft/Revue Internationale De L’Education, 57(3), 337–355.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang, R. (2012). Up and coming? Doctoral education in China. Australia Universities’ Review, 54(1), 64–71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ylijoki, O., & Henriksson, L. (2015). Tribal, proletarian and entrepreneurial career stories: Junior academics as a case in point. Studies in Higher Education, 42(7), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2015.1092129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yue, J., & Zhou, G. (2008). Tutorial system and employer system. Advanced Engineering Education Research, 2, 117–123.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhao, S., & Shen, W. (2013). A comparative analysis of the doctoral education expansion between USA and China: Based on data from 1960s. Educational Research, 11, 169–181.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zheng, G., & Cai, Y. (2018). Collaboration between Europe and China in doctoral education: Historical development and future challenges. In A. Oleksiyenko, Q. Zha, I. Chirikov, & J. Li (Eds.), International status anxiety and higher education: Soviet legacy in China and Russia. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC) and Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zheng, G., Cai, Y., & Ma, S. (2017). Towards an analytical framework for understanding the development of a quality assurance system in an international joint programme. European Journal of Higher Education, 7(3), 243–260. https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2017.1290877

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zheng, G., Shen, W., & Cai, Y. (2018). Institutional logics of Chinese doctoral education system. Higher Education, 76(5), 753–770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-018-0236-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou, Y. (2009). Review on the research into the relationship between tutors and postgraduates in the international higher education institutions. Journal of Xinyu College, 14(1), 106–108.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gaoming Zheng .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Zheng, G., Kivistö, J., Shen, W., Cai, Y. (2019). Comparing Doctoral Education in China and Finland: An Institutional Logics Perspective. In: Liu, H., Dervin, F., Du, X. (eds) Nordic-Chinese Intersections within Education. Palgrave Studies on Chinese Education in a Global Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28588-3_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28588-3_9

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-28587-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-28588-3

  • eBook Packages: EducationEducation (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics