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San Rafael Reserve, Paraguay: Key Social Stakeholders and Sustainability Scenarios Through Environmental Governance Approaches

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Social-ecological Systems of Latin America: Complexities and Challenges

Abstract

San Rafael Conservation Area is one of the greatest conservation challenges in Paraguay, as it is an area of historical socio-environmental conflicts, dating back to the Rio Summit in 1992 when the area was proposed. It has a relict fragment of Atlantic Forest, representative of the Alto Paraná ecoregion combined with natural pastures. These ecosystems are considered as areas of high biodiversity and numerous ecosystem services (the Guarani aquifer, a world reserve of freshwater). From a social point of view, the area includes large private estates, small communities or colonies, and ancestral-indigenous communities (The Mbyá Guarani). They use the ecosystems and their services, including biodiversity, for various purposes: productive uses on a large scale (agriculture, livestock), conservation, subsistence (hunting and gathering), illegal extraction (wood and firewood), and also constituting part of the identity of ancestral-indigenous groups. In this chapter, we analyze the importance of the role of local and national social actors, their interests, use of ecosystem services and biodiversity, as well as their characteristics (influence-importance). The central idea is to conceive and accept this area as a socio-ecosystem of multiple uses and to propose a new approach to conservation that considers social, economic, and ecological aspects.

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Change history

  • 04 January 2020

    The name of the first author of the chapter entitled “San Rafael Reserve, Paraguay: Key Social Stakeholders and Sustainability Scenarios Through Environmental Governance Approaches” should be: Stella Mary Amarilla R.

Notes

  1. 1.

    Reserve Area: Article 10, Law 352/94: of Protected Wild Areas: private property that has been declared as such by the respective decree and that will remain under that denomination until the process of conversion into a Protected Wild Area under public domain is finalized.

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Correspondence to Stella Mary Amarilla   (R.).

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Mary Amarilla, S., Yanosky, A., Villalba, J. (2019). San Rafael Reserve, Paraguay: Key Social Stakeholders and Sustainability Scenarios Through Environmental Governance Approaches. In: Delgado, L., Marín, V. (eds) Social-ecological Systems of Latin America: Complexities and Challenges. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28452-7_13

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