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Ilm

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Part of the Spirituality, Religion, and Education book series (SPRE)

Abstract

This chapter seeks to define relationships, starting with the correlation between scientific advancement and development that is embedded in our social psychology and educational discourse. Next, ideas and traditions in Hinduism are discussed to clarify the terms “religion” and “spirituality”. Yoga is discussed as a pedagogical practice aimed at holistic development, and the ways in which it has been adopted in formal education and diplomacy are observed. The discussion on yoga opens the door to delve into alternative ways of knowing. Here, approaches from Daoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism are found to be immensely relevant and inspiring. Another important aim of this chapter is to explore how a departure from the early influence of theology influenced the beginnings of rationality-based positivist science. In Chap. 2 I called on universities to turn their gaze inwards to grasp the causes behind current challenges. Reassessment of dominant practices of knowledge creation and dissemination in light of “other ways of knowing” yields rich insight in this direction. The chapter title “Ilm” is an admission that other ways of knowing exist.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilm_(Arabic). Accessed June 18, 2019.

  2. 2.

    Pennock R.T., The premodern sins of intelligent design, in Clayton P. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science, Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 746.

  3. 3.

    Closing Address by His Holiness the Dalai Lama to the Global Buddhist Congregation, New Delhi, India, 2011.

  4. 4.

    See Joel Mokyr, Jared Diamond, Patrick O’Brien, and Kenneth Pomeranz, all of who have examined various explanations including institutions, population growth and life expectancy, colonial conquest, and epidemiology.

  5. 5.

    Montgomery S.L., Why did modern science emerge in Europe? An essay in intellectual history, KNOW Volume 3(1), Spring 2019, University of Chicago.

  6. 6.

    Murphy N., Anglo-American post-modernity and the end of Theology-Science Dialogue? In Clayton P. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science, Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 473.

  7. 7.

    The Dalai Lama, Science at the Crossroads. https://www.dalailama.com/messages/buddhism/science-at-the-crossroads. Accessed June 14, 2019.

  8. 8.

    Suzuki S., Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind, edited by Trudy Dixon, with a preface by Huston Smith and an introduction by Richard Baker, Weatherhill 1970.

  9. 9.

    Olalere A.A., Workplace Spirituality and Creativity, The Palgrave Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Fulfilment, Springer International Publishing, 2018, pp. 989–1010.

  10. 10.

    The Message of India to Japan, A lecture delivered by Rabindranath Tagore at the Imperial University of Tokyo, 1916. https://archive.org/details/messageindiatoj00tagogoog/page/n20. Accessed June 15, 2019.

  11. 11.

    Elsewhere, I have noted: “Another distinguishing marker of Hinduism is that it de-emphasises conformity as the basis for membership. Agreement with a certain set of dogmas or rules is not a strict requirement for identification with the faith. This is an important difference from other religions and also why it can be instructive in the context of established models in academia. In the academic world too, membership into a scientific community is rule based. Broadly speaking, the language and techniques of positivist scientific enquiry must be mastered. Some systems allow more cross-disciplinary conversations than others but, by and large, most research and teaching continues to be practiced within disciplinary silos.” Unkule K., Seeing all beings as oneself: internationalizing higher education for universal harmony, Volume 30, Issue 1, Winter 2018.

  12. 12.

    Van der Veer P., The modern spirit of Asia: the spiritual and the secular in China and India, Princeton University Press, 2014, p. 66.

  13. 13.

    Panikkar K.N., Vivekananda’s Legacy of Universalism, The Hindu, April 10, 2013. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/vivekanandas-legacy-of-universalism/article4599118.ece. Accessed June 17, 2019.

  14. 14.

    Kaplish L., Vivekananda’s journey: How a young Indian monk’s travels around the world inspired modern yoga, January 2018. https://wellcomecollection.org/articles/Wk9TyyQAACUAPB3_. Accessed June 17, 2019.

  15. 15.

    Sethy S.S., Yoga Philosophy, Indira Gandhi National Open University, eGyanKosh. http://egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/38171/1/Unit-4.pdf.

  16. 16.

    Lipner J., Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Routledge, 2010, p. 340.

  17. 17.

    Kishore R., How well-funded is Modi’s Yoga Mission?, LiveMint, June 22, 2016. https://www.livemint.com/Opinion/ICIAsyiazOuqHWCx5yQMiO/How-wellfunded-is-Modi-govts-yoga-mission.html. Accessed June 17, 2019.

  18. 18.

    https://svyasa.edu.in/aboutUs_Uniqueness.html. Accessed June 17, 2019.

  19. 19.

    Lipner, p. 370.

  20. 20.

    Zimmer, footnote on p. 179.

  21. 21.

    Suzuki, p. 63.

  22. 22.

    Van der Veer P., The Modern Spirit of Asia: The Spiritual and the Secular in China and India, Princeton University Press, 2014, p. 36.

  23. 23.

    Ibid., p. 46.

  24. 24.

    Ibid., p. 49.

  25. 25.

    The Message of India to Japan, A lecture delivered by Rabindranath Tagore at the Imperial University of Tokyo, 1916.

  26. 26.

    Armstrong, Introduction to a History of God.

  27. 27.

    Armstrong, Introduction to a History of God.

  28. 28.

    Piralishvili Z., Interfaces of cultures and secularisation, in Muskheishvili D. (Ed.) Dialogue of Civilisations, Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2009, pp. 43–48.

  29. 29.

    Ibid., p. 7, p. 38.

  30. 30.

    LSE podcast, June 6, 2019, Amit Chaudhuri speaking on The Problem of Modernity: reinterpreting decolonisation and the modern?

  31. 31.

    Kleeberg B., Moral Facts and Scientific Fiction: 19th Century Theological Reactions to Darwinism in Germany, Working Papers on The Nature of Evidence: How Well Do ‘Facts’ Travel? No. 04/05, 2005.

  32. 32.

    Louisell D.W. and Jackson J. H., Religion, Theology, and Public Higher Education, California Law Review, Volume 50(5), 1962, p. 751.

  33. 33.

    Ibid., p. 16.

  34. 34.

    Garcia K., Religion, Sectarianism, and the Pursuit of Truth: Reexamining Academic Freedom in the Twenty-First Century, American Association of University Professors Journal of Academic Freedom, Volume 5, 2014.

  35. 35.

    Boyer J.W., The University of Chicago: A History, The University of Chicago Press, 2015, p. 32.

  36. 36.

    Boyer quotes a lawyer representing Union Mutual Life Insurance Company with which the first University of Chicago was involved in a legal battle in the second half of the nineteenth century.

  37. 37.

    Rudd P.M., Contributions from Spirituality: Simplicity-Complexity-Simplicity, in Clayton P. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science, OUP, 2006, p. 390.

  38. 38.

    Rudd, p. 392.

  39. 39.

    Denman B.D., What is the University in the 21st century? Higher Education Management and Policy, Volume 17(2), p. 11.

  40. 40.

    Nirenberg D. and Nirenberg R., Knowledge from Pebbles: What can be Counted and What Cannot, KNOW, Volume 2(1), Spring 2018, University of Chicago.

  41. 41.

    Davis G., An irredeemable time? The rising tide of hostility toward universities, Lecture at The Globe Theatre UPP Foundation, London, October 19, 2017.

  42. 42.

    Suzuki, p. 84.

  43. 43.

    Suzuki, p. 85.

  44. 44.

    Chi-Ming Lam (2017), Confucianism and critical rationalism: Friends or foes?, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 49:12, 1136–1145, https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2016.1225561.

  45. 45.

    p. 5.

  46. 46.

    Unkule K., Seeing All Beings as Oneself: Internationalizing Higher Education for Universal Harmony, Frontiers, Volume 30, Issue 1, Winter 2018, Special Issue on Religion and Study Abroad.

  47. 47.

    Zhao W. and Sun C., ‘Keep off the lawn; grass has a life too!: Reinvoking a Daoist ecological sensibility for moral education in China’s primary schools; Educational Philosophy and Theory, 2017.

  48. 48.

    p. 302.

  49. 49.

    Campbell J., Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization: Heinrich Zimmer, Princeton Classics, 2017, p. 20.

  50. 50.

    Zimmer, p. 21.

  51. 51.

    Keats writing to Benjamin Bailey, The authenticity of the imagination, November 22, 1817, cited in Armstrong K., A History of God, Ballantine Books, 1993, p. 347.

  52. 52.

    Armstrong K., A History of God, Ballantine Books, 1993, p. 347.

  53. 53.

    Rabinow P., The Foucault Reader, Pantheon Books, 1984.

  54. 54.

    Ibid., p. 10.

  55. 55.

    Nirenberg D. and Nirenberg R., Knowledge from Pebbles: What Can be Counted and What Cannot, KNOW, Vol 2(1), Spring 2018, University of Chicago.

  56. 56.

    Ibid., p. 475.

  57. 57.

    Murphy uses the example of “breaking of the genetic code at the biochemical level” to drive home the point here, which “allowed for explanations of inherited characteristics that could be described but not explained at the organismic level”.

  58. 58.

    Darchia M., The educational heritage of Comenius and the ways of development of modern pedagogy, in Muskheishvili D. (Ed.) Dialogue of Civilisations, Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2009, pp. 109–114.

  59. 59.

    Ibid., p. 2.

  60. 60.

    Ibid., p. 51.

  61. 61.

    Wallace B.A., Buddhism and Science, in Clayton P. (ed), The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Science, Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 32.

  62. 62.

    Message on a collaboration between science and religion, January 14, 2003. https://www.dalailama.com/messages/buddhism/science-and-religion. Accessed June 17, 2019.

  63. 63.

    Kudriani M., Religious Grounds for Dialogue of Civilisations, in Muskheishvili D. (Ed.) Dialogue of Civilisations, Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2009, pp. 121–131.

  64. 64.

    Speech delivered by Khatami at University of Virginia in 2006.

  65. 65.

    Tagore R., An Eastern University, The Complete Works of Rabindranath Tagore. http://tagoreweb.in/Render/ShowContent.aspx?ct=Essays&bi=72EE92F5-BE50-40D7-AE6E-0F7410664DA3&ti=72EE92F5-BE50-4A47-DE6E-0F7410664DA3. Accessed June 11, 2019.

  66. 66.

    Ibid., p. 33.

  67. 67.

    Ibid., p. 10.

  68. 68.

    Ibid., p. 10.

  69. 69.

    Ibid., p. 10.

  70. 70.

    Ibid., p. 10.

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Unkule, K. (2019). Ilm. In: Internationalising the University. Spirituality, Religion, and Education. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28112-0_4

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