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Jian’ai

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Abstract

The internationalisation project has been subject to the same influences that have informed the evolution of global higher education. This chapter sets out the ways in which internationalisation was conceived and implemented at various stages to serve the ends of diplomacy and the market economy. The history of internationalisation is unfortunately a saga of instrumentalisation. To find traces of the original mission of intercivilisational dialogue in action, the cultural exchanges between China and India are revisited. Through these stories we find evidence of the impact of religion and the quest for spiritual nourishment not only on higher education but also on its internationalisation. The manifestations of internationalisation in curriculum development, teaching, and learning as well as study abroad are discussed. Lastly, measures that help us understand the impact of our internationalisation practices are critically assessed. Naming the chapter “Jian’ai” is an expression of the hope that internationalisation practice will once again resume its mission of promoting universal love.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Unkule K., Seeing All Beings as Oneself: Internationalizing Higher Education for Universal Harmony, Frontiers, Volume 30, Issue 1, Winter 2018, Special Issue on Religion and Study Abroad.

  2. 2.

    Watson B., Mozi: Universal Love, Indiana University, Early Chinese Thought [B/E/P374]—Fall 2010 (R. Eno).

  3. 3.

    Mozi was Chinese philosopher whose fundamental doctrine of undifferentiated love (jianai) challenged Confucianism for several centuries and became the basis of a socio-religious movement known as Mohism (Britannica).

  4. 4.

    Eno R., The Great Learning and The Doctrine of the Mean: An online teaching translation, Version 1.0, June 2016.

  5. 5.

    Bhandari R., 100 Years of Student Mobility Data, IIE Networker, Spring 2019. https://www.iienetworker-digital.com/iieb/0119_spring_2019/MobilePagedArticle.action?articleId=1460672&app=false#articleId1460672. Accessed June 20, 2019.

  6. 6.

    De Wit H. and Rumbley L., Emerging Paradoxes of Internationalization in Higher Education in International Briefs for Higher Education Leaders No. 7, 2018 (ACE and The Boston College Center for International Higher Education).

  7. 7.

    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-saudi-canada-diplomacy-education/saudi-arabia-suspends-educational-exchange-programmes-with-canada-al-arabiya-tv-idUSKBN1KR1ES. Accessed June 9, 2019.

  8. 8.

    The New York Times, April 14, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/14/world/asia/china-academics-fbi-visa-bans.html.

  9. 9.

    Sharma Y., Overseas China scholars face self-censorship dilemma, University World News, August 24, 2018.

  10. 10.

    Ibid., p. 4.

  11. 11.

    https://thepienews.com/news/australia-belt-and-road-education-disruption-warning/. Accessed June 9, 2019.

  12. 12.

    China warns students, academics of risks of studying in U.S., Reuters, June 3, 2019. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trade-china-education/china-warns-students-academics-of-risks-of-studying-in-u-s-idUSKCN1T40RT. Accessed June 13, 2019.

  13. 13.

    https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/faxian.html. Accessed June 4, 2019.

  14. 14.

    A relevant Koan: A monk asked Joshu why Bodhidharma came to China. Joshu answered: The Oak tree in the garden”.

  15. 15.

    Ibid., p. 1.

  16. 16.

    Sen T., The Travel Records of Chinese Pilgrims Faxian, Xuanzang, and Yijing: Sources for Cross-cultural encounters between ancient China and ancient India, Education About Asia, Volume 11, Number 3, Winter 2016.

  17. 17.

    Ibid., p. 24.

  18. 18.

    Gupta K.G., The Making of China’s Image of India, China Report, March/April 1979, p. 43.

  19. 19.

    De Wit and Merkx, The History of Internationalization of Higher Education in Deardorff et al. (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education, SAGE Publications, 2012, p. 44.

  20. 20.

    Merkx and de Wit, p. 49.

  21. 21.

    Memorandum on International Education Policy, Apr. 19/Administration of William J. Clinton, 2000.

  22. 22.

    Stohl, p. 363.

  23. 23.

    Rockefeller Archive Center (website), https://rockarch.org/collections/nonrockorgs/IIE.php. Accessed June 3, 2019.

  24. 24.

    https://www.daad.de/der-daad/ueber-den-daad/portrait/en/32996-from-the-very-beginning/. Accessed June 3, 2019.

  25. 25.

    British Council Annual Report 1940–1941. https://www.britishcouncil.org/about-us/history. Accessed June 3, 2019.

  26. 26.

    Jones E. and de Wit H., Globalization of Internationalization: thematic and regional reflections on a traditional concept, AUDEM: The International Journal of Higher Education and Democracy, 3, 35–54, 2012.

  27. 27.

    Egron-Polak E., and Marmolejo F., Higher Education Internationalisation: Adjusting to new landscapes in De Wit., Gacel-Avila J., Jones E., Jooste N. (eds.) The Globalisation of Internationalisation: Emerging Voices and Perspectives, Routledge, 2017, p. 11.

  28. 28.

    Desjardins R., Considerations of the impact of neoliberalism and alternative regimes on learning and its outcomes: an empirical example based on the level and distribution of adult learning, International Studies in Sociology of Education, Volume 23 (3), pp. 182–203.

  29. 29.

    Rivza B. and Teichler U., The Changing Role of Student Mobility, Higher Education Policy, December 2007, p. 7.

  30. 30.

    Arendt H., Between Past and Future, First Published in the US in 1961 by Viking Press, p. 174.

  31. 31.

    Often these responses have been portrayed as nationalistic or post-colonial, but to view them as such, or even as reactive, stops us from being fully receptive to their intention to make a genuine and unique contribution. “Debates about internationalisation often evoke nationalist reactions akin to those against colonialism as scholars search for alternative and legitimate knowledge regimes and paradigms. One of the challenges facing higher education institutions in the developing world seeking to internationalise is resolving the tension between the competing needs of local versus global development, on achieving an appropriate balance between developing the skills, knowledge and mindsets needed to support national development and those required for the successful participation of individuals and the country in a globalised world” (Leask et al. 2013). This characterisation also assumes that different regions of the world wish to participate in globalisation and internationalisation to achieve the same goals and on similar terms as “core” regions.

  32. 32.

    Soudien C., Inside but Below: The Puzzle of Education in the Global Order, in Zajda (ed.), International Handbook on Globalisation, Education and Policy Research, 501–516, Springer, 2005.

  33. 33.

    Darchia M., The educational heritage of Comenius and the ways of development of modern pedagogy, in Muskheishvili D. (Ed.) Dialogue of Civilisations, Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2009, pp. 109–114.

  34. 34.

    Shen V., Daxue: The Great Learning for Universities Today, Dao 17, 2018, pp. 13–27.

  35. 35.

    Review of Know Your Enemy: The Rise and Fall of America’s Soviet Experts David C. Engerman Reviewed by Bryan Mcallister-Grande, Brandeis University, No. 1, April 2010, Global Studies Literature Review. https://www.nafsa.org/Resource_Library_Assets/Networks/RS/Book_Reviews/Studying_Area_Studies/. Accessed June 4, 2019.

  36. 36.

    Taber J.A., The Mimansa Theory of Self Recognition, Philosophy East & West, Volume 40 (1), 1990.

  37. 37.

    Ibid., p. 13.

  38. 38.

    Webb, G. Internationalisation of curriculum: An institutional approach. In J. Carroll & J. Ryan (Eds.), Teaching international students improving learning for all, Abingdon: Routledge, 2005, pp. 109–118.

  39. 39.

    Stohl M., We have met the enemy and he is us: the role of the faculty in the internationalisation of higher education in the coming decade, Journal of Studies in International Education, 2007 (11), p. 369.

  40. 40.

    Stier J., Internationalisation, intercultural communication and intercultural competence Journal of Intercultural Communication, Issue 11, 2006.

  41. 41.

    Yang R., Self and the other in the Confucian cultural context: Implications of China’s higher education development for comparative studies, International Review of Education, August 2011, pp. 337–355.

  42. 42.

    Mamdani M., Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: A Political Perspective on Culture and Terrorism, American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 3 (September, 2002), pp. 766–775.

  43. 43.

    Wagner R. G., Can we speak of East/West Ways of Knowing?, KNOW, Volume 2(1), Spring 2018, University of Chicago.

  44. 44.

    Louie K., Gathering Cultural Knowledge in Carroll and Ryan (eds.), Teaching International Students: Improving Learning for All, Routledge, 2005, p. 24.

  45. 45.

    Witte A. and Harden T., Introduction to Witte and Harden (Eds.), Intercultural Competence: Concepts, Challenges, Evaluations, Peter Lang GmbH, 2011.

  46. 46.

    Helms R.M., and Brajkovic L., Internationalization in the United States: Data, Trends, and Trump, International Briefs for Higher Education Leaders No. 7, 2018 (ACE and The Boston College Center for International Higher Education).

  47. 47.

    Yang R., Self and the other in the Confucian cultural context: Implications of China’s higher education development for comparative studies, International Review of Education, August 2011, pp. 337–355.

  48. 48.

    Hudzik J.K. and Stohl M., Comprehensive and Strategic Internationalisation of US Higher Education, in The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education, edited by Darla K. Deardorff, et al., SAGE Publications, 2012, p. 63.

  49. 49.

    Beth Perry and Tim May describe the impact of the pursuit of league tables trenchantly: “The result is an international scientific political economy which tends to be competitive leaving issues of redistribution or equity to one side. A global order characterised by what is regarded as free rather than fair trade and the supposed inviolability of market forces has encroached into the domain of science, research and higher education. Economic success is seen to depend on the possession, commodification and ultimate exploitation of particular forms of knowledge”; For further reading see Perry B., May T., Excellence, Relevance and the University: The “Missing Middle” in Socio-Economic Engagement, Journal of Higher Education in Africa/Revue de l’enseignement supérieur en Afrique, Vol. 4, No. 3 (2006), pp. 69–91.

  50. 50.

    Seneviratne K., “Rethink role of HE beyond rankings”, says minister, University World News 2018. https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20181003174150435. Accessed June 20, 2019; Wong D., Singapore universities should look beyond international rankings: Panel, Channel News Asia 2018. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/singapore-universities-should-look-beyond-international-rankings-10484568.

  51. 51.

    Tang L., Global ranking systems barely reflect universities’ individual strengths: Expert panel, Today Online, 2018. https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/global-ranking-systems-barely-reflect-universities-individual-strengths-expert-panel. Accessed June 20, 2019.

  52. 52.

    Edrif et al., Studying (Un)civilized states: drawing the borders of globalization in study abroad, CAPA Occasional Publication No. 7, 2018.

  53. 53.

    Edrif et al., p. 111.

  54. 54.

    Stohl M., We Have Met the Enemy and He Is Us: The Role of the Faculty in the Internationalization of Higher Education in the Coming Decade, Journal of Studies in International Education, 2007, pp. 359–372.

  55. 55.

    Cited in Rivza B. and Teichler U., The Changing Role of Student Mobility, Higher Education Policy, December 2007, p. 5.

  56. 56.

    Marinoni G. and de Wit H. (2019), Is internationalisation creating inequality in higher education? University World News. https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20190109100925536. Accessed January 16, 2019.

  57. 57.

    Knight J., Five Truths About Internationalisation, International Higher Education, Fall 2012, Number 69.

  58. 58.

    Phan L.H., Higher Education, English, and the Idea of ‘the West’: globalizing and encountering a global south regional university, Discourse: Studies in the cultural politics of education, 2018, p. 3.

  59. 59.

    Tagore R., An Eastern University, The Complete Works of Rabindranath Tagore. http://tagoreweb.in/Render/ShowContent.aspx?ct=Essays&bi=72EE92F5-BE50-40D7-AE6E-0F7410664DA3&ti=72EE92F5-BE50-4A47-DE6E-0F7410664DA3. Accessed June 11, 2019.

  60. 60.

    Phan L.H. and Barnawi O., Where English, neoliberalism, desire and internationalization are alive and kicking: higher education in Saudi Arabia today, Language and Education, July 2015, p. 2.

  61. 61.

    Tagore R., An Eastern University, The Complete Works of Rabindranath Tagore. http://tagoreweb.in/Render/ShowContent.aspx?ct=Essays&bi=72EE92F5-BE50-40D7-AE6E-0F7410664DA3&ti=72EE92F5-BE50-4A47-DE6E-0F7410664DA3. Accessed June 11, 2019.

  62. 62.

    Nigam A., Decolonising the university, in Bhattacharya D., The University Unthought: Notes for a Future, Taylor and Francis, 2018.

  63. 63.

    Leask B., Beelen J., and Kaunda L., Internationalisation of the curriculum: international approaches and perspectives, in de Wit, Hunter, Johnson and van Liempd (eds.), The next 25 years of the internationalisation of higher education, EAIE, 2013. https://www.academia.edu/10267470/Internationalisation_of_the_curriculum_international_approaches_and_perspectives. Accessed June 5, 2019.

  64. 64.

    Brandenburg U., de Wit H., The End of Internationalisation, International Higher Education, No. 62, Winter 2015, pp. 15–17.

  65. 65.

    Ibid., p. 13.

  66. 66.

    Brandenburg U., Back to the Future: The Next 100 Years of Student Mobility, IIE Networker, Centennial Issue, 2019.

  67. 67.

    https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/faxian.html. Accessed June 4, 2019.

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Unkule, K. (2019). Jian’ai. In: Internationalising the University. Spirituality, Religion, and Education. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28112-0_3

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