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Anitya

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Part of the Spirituality, Religion, and Education book series (SPRE)

Abstract

This chapter begins by tracing the diverse histories of emergence and evolution of higher education in different parts of the world. Implications of emergence of the western, research-driven model as the superior system are discussed. The effects of world-class-university anxiety on the relationship between teaching and learning are addressed. Departing from an overwhelming emphasis on neoliberal globalisation as the root cause of the current crisis facing universities, this chapter argues for a reassessment of how universities view themselves and understand their purpose and mission. In the foreseeable future, the continuing success of universities will depend on developing an awareness of all existing models and making an attempt to learn from each other, investing significantly in serving local communities and creatively meeting the challenge posed by online education by going back to the basics and redefining how they add value. The chapter is titled Anitya to signify that while change creates uncertainty, it is also the harbinger of an opportunity for introspection, reinvention, and spiritual transformation.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Cole J., The Great American University: Its Rise to Preeminence, Its Indispensable National Role, Why It Must Be Protected, Public Affairs, 2010, p. 11.

  2. 2.

    Thrift N., The University of Life, New Literary History, 47(2–3), 2016, pp. 399–417.

  3. 3.

    Shen V., Daxue: The Great Learning for Universities Today, Dao 17, 2018, pp. 13–27.

  4. 4.

    Cole, p. 31.

  5. 5.

    Kogan M., Teaching and Research: Some Framework Issues, OECD Online Library, 2004, p. 11.

  6. 6.

    Kogan, p. 14.

  7. 7.

    Henkel M., Teaching and Research: The Idea of a Nexus, Higher Education Policy and Management, Volume 16, No. 2, OECD, 2004, p. 20.

  8. 8.

    Denman B.D., What is the University in the 21st century? Higher Education Management and Policy, Volume 17 (2), p. 10.

  9. 9.

    Tagore R., An Eastern University, The Complete Works of Rabindranath Tagore. http://tagoreweb.in/Render/ShowContent.aspx?ct=Essays&bi=72EE92F5-BE50-40D7-AE6E-0F7410664DA3&ti=72EE92F5-BE50-4A47-DE6E-0F7410664DA3. Accessed June 11, 2019.

  10. 10.

    Laberee D.F., Public Goods, Private Goods: The American Struggle over Educational Goals, American Educational Research Journal, Vol 34(1), p. 41.

  11. 11.

    Laberee, p. 73.

  12. 12.

    Tagore R., An Eastern University, The Complete Works of Rabindranath Tagore. http://tagoreweb.in/Render/ShowContent.aspx?ct=Essays&bi=72EE92F5-BE50-40D7-AE6E-0F7410664DA3&ti=72EE92F5-BE50-4A47-DE6E-0F7410664DA3. Accessed June 11, 2019.

  13. 13.

    Li J., World-class higher education and the emerging Chinese model of the university. PROSPECTS, 42 (3), 2012, pp. 319–339.

  14. 14.

    Wagner R.G., Can we speak of East/West Ways of Knowing?, KNOW, Volume 2(1), Spring 2018, University of Chicago.

  15. 15.

    Cole, p. 47.

  16. 16.

    Cole, p. 53.

  17. 17.

    Cole quoting Clark Kerr, p. 11.

  18. 18.

    Desjardins R., Considerations of the impact of neoliberalism and alternative regimes on learning and its outcomes: an empirical example based on the level and distribution of adult learning, International Studies in Sociology of Education, Volume 23 (3), pp. 182–203.

  19. 19.

    Chao R.Y., Entrepreneurial Universities in ASEAN Nations: Insights from Policy Perspective, Journal of Comparative and International Higher Education, 10 (2018).

  20. 20.

    Chao, p. 7.

  21. 21.

    Franzinetti G., The Strange Death of Area Studies and the Normative Turn, Quaderni storici, December 2015, p. 840. Franzinetti’s analysis is in the context of the rapid decline of area studies as a discipline, following the end of the Cold War.

  22. 22.

    Franzinetti, p. 843.

  23. 23.

    Hudzik and Stohl, p. 366.

  24. 24.

    Nigam A., Decolonising the university, in Bhattacharya D., The University Unthought: Notes for a Future, Taylor and Francis, 2018.

  25. 25.

    Tagore R., An Eastern University, The Complete Works of Rabindranath Tagore. http://tagoreweb.in/Render/ShowContent.aspx?ct=Essays&bi=72EE92F5-BE50-40D7-AE6E-0F7410664DA3&ti=72EE92F5-BE50-4A47-DE6E-0F7410664DA3. Accessed June 11, 2019.

  26. 26.

    Schill M., Turning the tide on the ebbing of public trust in higher education, University World News, July 20, 2018. https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20180713131643672. Accessed June 13, 2019.

  27. 27.

    UPP Foundation, Truly Civic: Strengthening the connection between universities and their places, 2019. https://upp-foundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Civic-University-Commission-Final-Report.pdf. Accessed June 10, 2019.

  28. 28.

    Tagore (1927).

  29. 29.

    Garcia K., Religion, Sectarianism, and the Pursuit of Truth: Reexamining Academic Freedom in the Twenty-First Century, American Association of University Professors Journal of Academic Freedom, Volume 5, 2014.

  30. 30.

    Palmer A., On Progress and Historical Change, KNOW, Vol 1(2), University of Chicago, 2017.

  31. 31.

    The events in question being the election of Donald Trump to the American Presidency and Brexit.

  32. 32.

    Yang R., Self and the other in the Confucian cultural context: Implications of China’s higher education development for comparative studies, International Review of Education, August 2011, pp. 337–355.

  33. 33.

    Tagore R., An Eastern University, The Complete Works of Rabindranath Tagore. http://tagoreweb.in/Render/ShowContent.aspx?ct=Essays&bi=72EE92F5-BE50-40D7-AE6E-0F7410664DA3&ti=72EE92F5-BE50-4A47-DE6E-0F7410664DA3. Accessed June 11, 2019.

  34. 34.

    Hutchings K., Decolonising Global Ethics: Thinking with the Pluriverse, Ethics & International Affairs, Volume 33 (2) Summer 2019, pp. 115–125.

  35. 35.

    Hutchings (2019).

  36. 36.

    Unkule K., The East West Encounter: A Pedagogical Experience: Globalization, Civilization, and Their Discontents, Occasional Publication No. 7, CAPA, 2018.

  37. 37.

    Minute on Education by the Hon’ble T.B. Macaulay, dated February 2, 1835. http://www.mssu.edu/projectsouthasia/history/primarydocs/education/Macaulay001.htm.

  38. 38.

    The Message of India to Japan, A Lecture delivered by Rabindranath Tagore at the Imperial University of Tokyo, 1916. https://archive.org/details/messageindiatoj00tagogoog/page/n20. Accessed June 15, 2019.

  39. 39.

    https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20190408143502971.

  40. 40.

    Desjardins (2013).

  41. 41.

    Haack S., The Academic Publishing Racket: Whatever happened to authors’ rights?, Borderless Philosophy, 2 (2019), pp. 1–21.

  42. 42.

    http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20180905095203579. Accessed November 27, 2018.

  43. 43.

    http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20180927104004479. Accessed November 27, 2018.

  44. 44.

    Douglass J.A., How Rankings came to determine World Class in Douglass J.A. (ed.), The Flagship University: Changing the Paradigm from Global Ranking to National Relevancy, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, pp. 9–29.

  45. 45.

    In a note issued subsequent to the policy announcement, The Indian Ministry of Human Resource Development clarified: “Government under the leadership of Shri Narendra Modi is committed for equal development and promotion of all Indian languages. There will be no imposition of any language in educational institutions, nor discrimination against any language.” http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=190213. Accessed June 11, 2019.

  46. 46.

    Altbach P.G., Nalanda Redux: Is a World-Class University Possible in Rural Bihar?, International Higher Education, Number 70 Winter, 2013, pp. 18 and 19.

  47. 47.

    Ibid., p. 14.

  48. 48.

    Davis G., An irredeemable time? The rising tide of hostility toward universities, Lecture at The Globe Theatre UPP Foundation, London, October 19, 2017.

  49. 49.

    Perry B., May T., Excellence, Relevance and the University: The “Missing Middle” in Socio-Economic Engagement, Journal of Higher Education in Africa/Revue de l’enseignement supérieur en Afrique, Vol. 4, No. 3 (2006), pp. 69–91.

  50. 50.

    UPP Foundation, Truly Civic: Strengthening the connection between universities and their places, 2019. https://upp-foundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Civic-University-Commission-Final-Report.pdf. Accessed June 10, 2019.

  51. 51.

    Ibid., p. 6.

  52. 52.

    Anchor or Sail: Comparative study of how UK and US universities balance their local and international ambitions, British Council and IIE. https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Publications/Anchor-or-Sail. Accessed June 10, 2019.

  53. 53.

    Ibid., p. 18.

  54. 54.

    Hudzik J.K. and Stohl M., Comprehensive and Strategic Internationalisation of US Higher Education, in The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education</i>, edited by Darla K. Deardorff, et al., SAGE Publications, 2012, p. 63.

  55. 55.

    Tagore (1927).

  56. 56.

    McGowan R., Preparing students to find work instead of a job, University World News, June 8, 2019. https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20190604153917351. Accessed June 13, 2019.

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Unkule, K. (2019). Anitya. In: Internationalising the University. Spirituality, Religion, and Education. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28112-0_2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28112-0_2

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