Advertisement

A Contingent Valuation Practice with Respect to Wildlife Trafficking Law Enforcement in Iran (Case Study: Panthera pardus saxicolor)

  • Maliheh Bazghandi
  • Yadollah Bostan
  • Jalil Sarhangzadeh
  • Ali Teimouri
Chapter
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

Even though wildlife trafficking is considered as a serious wildlife threat worldwide, no concrete studies have been done so far on the severity of the illegal trade of the Iranian large carnivores. However, for the purpose of law enforcement aimed at prohibiting illegal trade of the specimens, readily recognizable part or derivate thereof, determination of conservation values of the target species is required. As such, an article in the first phase of the Persian Leopard National Conservation and Management Action Plan is dedicated to the relative valuation practices. Relatively, this study is to estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP) for leopard conservation in Iran and assessing the relative parameters according to a specialist conservation target group consisted of experts and staff of the Department of Environment across the leopard range in Iran. Subsequently, a study was conducted from May 2016 to February 2017 using contingent valuation method by applying dichotomous choice and two-dimensional questionnaires. In this regard, a total of 339 questionnaires were distributed among the target group across all provinces of Iran. The results demonstrated that WTP parameter was positive in 73% of the respondents. Yet, following by 1% increase in BID (maximum accepted proposed value), the probability of payment for leopard conservation is reduced up to 0.285%. According to the Logit model and maximum likelihood method and considering the sampling population (i.e., staff of the Department of Environment), the average WTP for annual leopard conservation is 136,263.5 IRR/per person equivalent to the annual total value of 887,893,454.9 IRR for the entire sampling population. The most important effective variables in this study include income and willingness to be a volunteer in non-governmental organizations. Conducting this research, the authors believe that conservation value of the Persian leopard is best evaluated only if a wide range of parameters and various sampling groups are involved in the assessment processes. Yet, the findings in this study suggest that the current penalty for illegal hunting of the leopards in Iran is less than the assessed value of WTP for leopard conservation as much as 87,893,454 IRR. Thus, results of this research could be used for the purpose of establishing appropriate penalties for illegal hunting and poisoning of the specimens as well as relative law enforcements concerning the cases of illegal trade.

Keywords

Panthera pardus saxicolor Conservation valuation Wildlife trafficking Contingent Valuation Method Willingness to Pay Iran 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express appreciation to the Hunting and Fishing Conservation and Management General Office of the Department of Environment of Iran and Asian Leopard Specialist Society for cooperation in data collection. Our sincere appreciation to Dr. Arezoo Sanei for valuable consultant on selection of the research topic according to the Persian Leopard National Conservation and Management Action Plan, data collection methodology and preparation of the final manuscript. The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Ahmad Fatahi Ardakani for consultant regarding economy aspect of the research and Dr. Naghmeh Mobarghaee Dinan because of consultant on conservation valuation techniques. We appreciate statistical comments of Dr. Bahman Kiani and consultant of Dr. Ahad Setoudeh on the study. We would like to acknowledge the participants in questionnaire survey from all provinces of Iran. Special thanks to the following persons because of coordination of questionnaire survey in each province: Musavi and Firuzi (Markazi Province), Yusefi (West Azarbaijan Province), Mostafavi (Alborz Province), Darvishi (Boushehr Province), Asgari and Behzadian (East Azarbaijan Province), Jaafari and Gordmardi (North Khorasan Province), Dori (South Khorasan Province), Alvandi (Khuzestan Province), Gharcheh Lu (Zanjan Province), Adibi (Semnan Province), Rezaei and Derakhshani (Sistan and Balouchestan Province), Soleimani and Shabani (Fars Province), Reza-Zadeh, Amiri and Khosravi (Ghazvin Province), Riazi Far (Kordestan Province), Hashemi (Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province), Kheir-Abadi (Golestan Province), Hadipour (Gilan Province), Babaei (Lorestan Province), Ahmadian (Tehran Province), Rabie (Mazandaran Province), Gudarzi and Shamoddini (Hormozgan Province), Zare (Yazd Province), Amiri (Esfahan Province), Amiri (Ilam Province), Homayuni and Abedi-Moghaddam (Ghom Province), Khalvandi (Kermanshah Province), Abdollahi (Hamedan Province), Hossein-Zadeh (Ardebil Province), and Ommat Mohamadi (Razavi Khorasan Province).

References

  1. Abaza, H., & Rietbergen-McCracken, J. (1998). Economic instruments for environmental management: A worldwide compendium of case studies. London, UK: Earthscan Publication.Google Scholar
  2. Abedi, Z., Fatahi Ardakani, A., Hanifnejad, A. R., & Dashti Rahmatabadi, N. (2014). Groundwater valuation and quality preservation in Iran: The case of Yazd. International Journal of Environmental Research, 8(1), 213–220.Google Scholar
  3. Amir Nejad, H. (2005). Determine the total economic value of the ecosystem of northern forests of Iran with an emphasis on ecological and ecological values and conservation values (Phd dissertation). Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University.Google Scholar
  4. Amir Nejad, H., Khalilian, S., Assareh, M. H., & Ahmadian, M. (2006). Estimating the existence value of north forests of Iran by using a contingent valuation method. Ecological Economics, 58(4), 665–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amiri, N., Emadian, S. F., Fallah, A., Adeli, K., & Amir Nejad, H. (2015). Estimation of conservation value of Myrtle (Myrtus Communis) using a contingent valuation method: A case study in a Dooreh Forest area, Lorestan Province, Iran. Forest Ecosystems, 2(1), 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amirnejad, H., Mojaverian, M., & Shahpouri, A. (2016). Public preferences for the protection of endangered species (case study: Sturgeon of the Caspian Sea). Journal of Natural Sciences, 14(4), 121–134.Google Scholar
  7. Arrow, K. J., Cropper, M. L., Eads, G. C., & Hahn, R. W. (1996). Is there a role for benefit-cost analysis in environmental, health, and safety regulation? Science, 221(80), 272.Google Scholar
  8. Asafu-Adjaye, J. (2005). Environmental economics for non-economists: Techniques and policies for sustainable development (pp. 101–130). Hackensack, NJ: World scientific Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ataei, S., Joolaie, R., Fatahi Ardakani, A., Amir Nejad, H., & Shirani Bidabadi, F. (2013). Estimating the recreational value of wilderness areas in the tourist season with contingent valuation method (case study: Sadiq Abad Desert). International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences, 2(23), 1112–1117.Google Scholar
  10. Bann, C. (2002). An overview of valuation techniques: Advantages and limitations. Asean Biodiversity, 2(2), 8–16.Google Scholar
  11. Bateman, I. (1991). Placing money values on the unpriced benefits of forestry. Quarterly Journal of Forestry (United Kingdom), 85(3), 152–165.Google Scholar
  12. Bateman, I. J., Carson, R. T., Day, B., Hanemann, M., Hanley, N., Hett, T., & Sugden, R. (2001). Economic valuation with stated preference techniques. London, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Bateman, I. J., Carson, R. T., Day, B., Hanemann, W. M., Hanley, N., Hett, T., & Pearce, D. W. (2003). Guidelines for the use of stated preference techniques for the valuation of preferences for non-market goods. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  14. Bertram, C., & Larondelle, N. (2017). Going to the woods is going home: Recreational benefits of a larger urban Forest site—A travel cost analysis for Berlin, Germany. Ecological Economics, 132, 255–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bishop, R. C., Champ, P. A., & Mullarkey, D. J. (1995). Contingent valuation. In D. W. Bromley (Ed.), The handbook of environmental economics (pp. 629–654). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  16. Bishop, R. C., & Heberlein, T. A. (1979). Measuring values of extra market goods: Are indirect measures biased? American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 61(5), 926–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borges, R. C., De Oliveira, A., Bernardo, N., & Costa, R. (2006). Diagnóstico da Fauna Silvestre Apreendida e Recolhida Pela Polícia Militar de Meio Ambiente de Juiz de Fora, MG (1998 e 1999). Revista Brasileira de Zoociências, 8(1), 23–33.Google Scholar
  18. Bostan, Y., FatahiArdakani, A., & Salari, Zh. (2018). Comparison of discrete payment methods for investing in the recovery of urban forest parks (Case Study: Sarab Ghanbar Park, Kermanshah). In Conference of Agricultural Economics Iran 11.Google Scholar
  19. Boxall, P. C., Adamowicz, W. L., Swait, J., Williams, M., & Louviere, J. (1996). A comparison of stated preference methods for environmental valuation. Ecological Economics, 18(3), 243–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Briggs, A. H. (2004). Statistical approaches to handling uncertainty in health economic evaluation. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 16(6), 551–561.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown, T. C. (2003). Introduction to stated preference methods. In A primer on nonmarket valuation (Part of the economics of non-market goods and resources book series (ENGO)) (Vol. 3, pp. 99–110). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carson, R. T., & Hanemann, W. M. (2005). Contingent valuation. Handbook of Environmental Economics, 2, 821–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Champ, P. A., Boyle, K., & Brown, T. C. (2003). A primer on non-market valuation (The economics of non-market goods and services (ENGO)) (Vol. 3). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chaudhry, P., Singh, B., & Tewari, V. P. (2007). Non-market economic valuation in developing countries: Role of participant observation method in CVM analysis. Journal of Forest Economics, 13(4), 259–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. CITES. (1973). The convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora. Appendices I, II and III, valid from 27 July, U.N.T.S. 243. https://www.cites.org/eng
  26. CITES. (1983, April 30). Second extraordinary meeting in Gaborone, Botswana (the last day of its fourth regular meeting).Google Scholar
  27. CITES Strategic Vision. (2008–2020). The conference of the parties to the convention, ADOPTS the CITES strategic vision: 2008-2020, Annexed to this resolution. Resolution Conf. 16.3 (Rev. CoP 17).Google Scholar
  28. Cooney, R., Roe, D., Dublin, H., Phelps, J., Wilkie, D., Keane, A., & Biggs, D. (2017). From poachers to protectors: Engaging local communities in solutions to illegal wildlife trade. Conservation Letters, 10(3), 367–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dashti, Q., & Sohrabi, F. (2008). Estimation of recreational value of Nabovat Park in Karaj by using the contingent valuation method. Journal of Natural Resources of Iran, 61(4), 921–932. (in Persian).Google Scholar
  30. Daszak, P. (2006). Risky behavior in the Ebola zone. Animal Conservation, 9(4), 366–367.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davies, J., & Richards, M. (1998). Economics and participatory forest management: A case of inappropriate precision or untapped potential. Report for the Forestry Research Programme, DFID. London, UK: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  32. Duffield, J. W., & Patterson, D. A. (1991). Inference and optimal design for a welfare measure in dichotomous choice contingent valuation. Land Economics, 67(2), 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Duffy, R. & St. John, F. (2013). Poverty, poaching and trafficking: What are the links. evidence on demand. http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/17836/1/EoD_HD059_Jun2013_Poverty_Poaching
  34. Eslamian, Z., Ghorbani, M., Mesbahzadeh, T., & Rafiee, H. (2015). Estimates of participation and willingness to pay by local communities in protecting and reviving deserts areas (case study: Noush Abad of Aran and Bidgol County). Desert Management, 36, 78–89.Google Scholar
  35. Fatahi, A. (2013). Principles of economic evaluation of natural resources. Ardakan, Iran: Ardakan University Publication.Google Scholar
  36. Fatahi, A., Bostan, Y., & Arab, M. (2016). The comparison of methods of discrere payment vehicle (dichotomous choice) in improving the quality of the environment (a case study of air pollution in Tehran). 3rd International Conference on Research in Engineering, Science and Technology, Batumi, Georgia.Google Scholar
  37. Fatahi, A., Rezvani, M., Bostan, Y., & Arab, M. (2016). Estimating public participation in investment organic products in Babol (case study: organic rice). 3rd International Conference on Research in Engineering, Science and Technology, Batumi, Georgia.Google Scholar
  38. Fernando, G., Destro, G., Pimentel, T. L., Sabaini, R. M., Borges, R. C., & Barreto, R. (2012). Efforts to combat wild animals trafficking in Brazil. In G. A. Lameed (Ed.), Biodiversity enrichment in a diverse world (pp. 421–436). New York, NY: InTech.Google Scholar
  39. Ghorbani, M., & Firooz Zare, A. (2012). Valuation of Mashhad air pollution (contingent valuation approach). Journal of Economy and Regional Development, 18(2), 1–177.Google Scholar
  40. Graves, P. E. (2013). Chapter 15: Environmental valuation: The travel cost method. In P. E. Graves (Ed.), Environmental economics: An integrated approach. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gujarati, D. N. (2009). Basic econometrics (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  42. Han, F., Yang, Z., Wang, H., & Xu, X. (2011). Estimating willingness to pay for environment conservation: A contingent valuation study of kanas nature reserve, Xinjiang, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 180(1–4), 451–459.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Hanemann, M., Loomis, J., & Kanninen, B. (1991). Statistical efficiency of double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 73(4), 1255–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heckman, J. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica, 47(1), 153–161.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1912352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hirons, M., Comberti, C., & Dunford, R. (2016). Valuing Cultural Ecosystem Services. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 41, 5.1–5.30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jenkins, P. T. (2007). Broken screens: The regulation of live animal imports in the United States (56 pp). Washington, DC: Defenders of Wildlife.Google Scholar
  47. Judge, G. G., Hill, R. C., Griffiths, W. E., Lukepohl, H., & Lee, T. C. (1988). Introduction to the theory and practice of econometrics. New York, NY: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Karesh, W. B., Cook, R. A., Bennett, E. L., & Newcomb, J. (2005). Wildlife trade and global disease emergence. Emerging infectious diseases., 11(7), 1000.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Karimzadegan, H., Rahmatian, M., & Mahmodi, M. (2000). Valuation of environmental assets of Grebygan manmade forest by using extended linear expenditure system model (ELES). Journal of Environmental Studies, 26(26), 51–59.Google Scholar
  50. Kennedy, P. (2003). A Guide to Econometrics (p. 610). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  51. Kiani, B. (2014). Application of advanced statistical methods in natural resources (1st ed.). Yazd, Iran: Yazd University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Lee, C. K., & Han, S. Y. (2002). Estimating the use and preservation values of national parks’ tourism resources using a contingent valuation method. Tourism Management, 23(5), 531–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lin, J. (2005). Tackling Southeast Asia’s illegal wildlife trade. Sybil, 9, 191.Google Scholar
  54. Mattia, S., Oppio, A., & Pandolfi, A. (2012). Testing the use of contingent valuation method in real estate market: First results of an experiment in the city of Milan. XLI Incontro di Studio del Ce.S.E.T., 721–734.Google Scholar
  55. McFadden, D., & Leonard, G. K. (1993). Issues in the contingent valuation of environmental goods: Methodologies for data collection and analysis. In J. A. Hausman (Ed.), Contingent valuation: A critical assessment. Amsterdam, Netherlands: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  56. Ngoc, A. C., & Wyatt, T. (2013). A green criminological exploration of illegal wildlife trade in Vietnam. Asian Journal of Criminology, 8(2), 129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nunes, P. A., Van Den Bergh, J. C., & Nijkamp, P. (2003). The ecological economics of biodiversity: Methods and policy applications. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  58. Pascual, U., Muradian, R., Brander, L., Gómez-Baggethun, E., Martín-López, B., Verma, M., & Farley, J. (2010). The economics of valuing ecosystem services and biodiversity. In P. Kumar (Ed.), The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity ecological and economic foundations (pp. 183–256). London, UK: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  59. Rajabi, M., & Mousavi, S. N. (2014). Estimating on of the tourism value and preservation value of Naghsh-E-Jahan Square in Esfahan, Iran (using a contingent valuation method). Journal of Economic Sciences, 8(27), 127–146.Google Scholar
  60. Ready, R. C., Whitehead, J. C., & Blomquist, G. C. (1995). Contingent valuation when respondents are ambivalent. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 29(2), 181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Richardson, L., Loomis, J. B., & Champ, P. A. (2013). Valuing morbidity from wildfire smoke exposure: A comparison of revealed and stated preference techniques. Land Economics, 89(1), 76–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Roe, D. (2008). Trading nature: A report with case studies, on the contribution of wildlife trade management to sustainable livelihoods and the millennium development goals. Cambridge, UK: TRAFFIC International and WWF International.Google Scholar
  63. Rohani, N., & Rafiee, H. (2012). Estimation of People’s willingness to pay for conservation of rare and threatened species of cheetah in Iran. Environmental Researches, 2(4), 21–28.Google Scholar
  64. Sanei, A. (2007). Assessment of Leopard (Panthera pardus) status in Iran (Vol. 1, p. 298). Tehran, Iran: Sepehr Publication Center.Google Scholar
  65. Sanei, A., & Zakaria, M. (2011a). Distribution pattern of the Persian leopard in Iran. Asia Life Sciences Supplement, 7, 7–18.Google Scholar
  66. Sanei, A., & Zakaria, M. (2011b). Survival of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran: Primary threats and human-leopard conflicts. Asia Life Sciences Supplement, 7, 31–39.Google Scholar
  67. Sanei, A., Mousavi, M., Mousivand, M., & Zakaria, M. (2012). Assessment of the Persian Leopard mortality rate in Iran. In Proceedings from UMT 11th international annual symposium on sustainability science and management (pp. 1458–1462). Terengganu, Malaysia: Universiti Malaysia Terengganu.Google Scholar
  68. Sanei, A. (2016). Persian Leopard national conservation and management action plan in Iran. Tehran, Iran: Department of Environment of Iran.Google Scholar
  69. Sanei, A., Mousavi, M., Kiabi, B. H., Masoud, M. R., Gord Mardi, E., Mohamadi, H., … Raeesi, T. (2016). Status assessment of the Persian Leopard in Iran. Cat News Special Issue, 10, 43–50.Google Scholar
  70. Sanei, A. (2020). Novel classification of natural and socioeconomic characteristics for the Persian Leopard research and conservation programs. In A. Sanei (Ed.), Research and management practices for conservation of the Persian Leopard in Iran. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  71. Sanei, A., Zakaria, M., Daraei, L., Besmeli, M. R., Esfandiari, F., & Veisi, H. (2020a). Countrywide distribution of the Persian leopard potential habitats in a regional basis in Iran. In A. Sanei (Ed.), Research and management practices for conservation of the Persian leopard in Iran. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  72. Sanei, A., Zakaria, M., Mohamad Kasim, M. D., & Mohd, A. (2020b). An Innovative Approach for Modeling Cumulative Effect of Variations in the Land Use/Land Cover Factors on Regional Persistence of the Persian Leopard. In A. Sanei (Ed.), Research and management practices for conservation of the Persian leopard in Iran. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  73. Sanei, A., Teimouri, A., Ahmadi, F. G., Asgarian, H. R., & Alikhani, M. (2020c). Introduction to the Persian Leopard national conservation and management action plan in Iran. In A. Sanei (Ed.), Research and management practices for conservation of the Persian Leopard in Iran. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  74. Sellar, C., Chavas, J. P., & Stoll, J. R. (1986). Specification of the Logit model: The case of valuation of nonmarket goods. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 13(4), 382–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Souza, G. D., & Soares Filho, A. D. O. (2005). O Comércio Ilegal de Aves Silvestres Na Região do Paraguaçu e Sudoeste da Bahia. Enciclopédia Biosfera, 1, 1–10.Google Scholar
  76. Stevens, T. H., More, T. A., & Glass, R. J. (1994). Interpretation and temporal stability of CV bids for wildlife existence: A panel study. Land Economics, 70(3), 355–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Suri, A. (2015). Advanced econometrics along with the use of Eviews 8 & Stata 12 (Vol. II). Tehran, Iran: Farhang Shenasi Publishing.Google Scholar
  78. Tangerino Hernandez, E. F., & Siqueira de Carvalho, M. (2006). O tráfico de animais silvestres no Estado do Paraná. Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences, 28(2), 257–266.Google Scholar
  79. Tolunay, A., & Başsüllü, Ç. (2015). Willingness to pay for carbon sequestration and co-benefits of forests in Turkey. Sustainability, 7(3), 3311–3337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Venkatachalam, L. (2004). The contingent valuation method: A review. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 24(1), 89–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Walker, S. H., & Duncan, D. B. (1967). Estimation of the probability of an event as a function of several independent variables. Biometrika, 54(1–2), 167–179.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Welsh, M. P., & Bishop, R. C. (1993). Multiple bounded discrete choice models. Western Regional Research Publication, W-33, Sixth Interim Report.Google Scholar
  83. Wyatt, T. (2013). Wildlife trafficking: A deconstruction of the crime, the victims, and the offenders. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maliheh Bazghandi
    • 1
  • Yadollah Bostan
    • 2
  • Jalil Sarhangzadeh
    • 1
  • Ali Teimouri
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Natural Resources and Desert StudiesUniversity of YazdYazdIran
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural EconomicsArdakan UniversityArdakanIran
  3. 3.Department of EnvironmentConservation, Hunting and Fishing Management General OfficeTehranIran

Personalised recommendations