Health 4.0: Digital Twins for Health and Well-Being



With the increasing prevalence in the use of wearables, social media, smart living, and personalized recommender systems for consumer health, it becomes imperative to converge these technologies to provide personalized, context driven, proactive, and preventive care in real time. Digital Twins are a convergence technology and involve making a digital replica of any living or nonliving entity. At present, Digital Twins are extensively used in Industry 4.0 where Digital Twins help in optimizing the performance of machines by proactive and predictive maintenance. This chapter gives an overview of the existing literature and aims to provide an overview of existing literature on Digital Twins for personal health and well-being—key terminologies, key applications, and key gaps.


Digital Twins Personal health Well-being Convergence Wellness Artificial intelligence 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of OttawaOttawaCanada

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