Trial and Error: Post-War Democracies and the Restoration of Parliamentarism—Italy, Austria, Germany
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In the aftermath of the Second World War Italy, Austria and Germany, the countries where Fascist and National Socialist regimes had arisen earlier than elsewhere, were fiercely determined, not to investigate into the reasons for the failure of parliamentary democracy in their realm, but to implement again a parliamentary regime of the Westminster type. The author looks into the discussions in the respective constitutional assemblies and sketches the different constitutional concepts of the political parties rearising after 1945. In the end, constitutions based on the principles of parliamentary democracy and universal suffrage were passed in all three countries, but their parents had insisted on changes, even decisive ones, with regard to its predecessors in order to extirpate possible deficiencies and to guarantee a happier political future for their countries.