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Intersex in Europe

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Abstract

Over the last two decades, the European Union (EU) has been introducing legislation for the active promotion of SOGI rights. Some of the rights of sexual minorities in the EU are protected under the European Union’s treaties and law. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and the Charter on Fundamental Rights condemn discrimination based on sexual orientation. In the field of employment, the Council Directive 2000/78/EC called Employment Equality Framework Directive combats discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation. The adoption of the Employment Directive obliges all Member States to introduce legislation banning discrimination in employment on sexual orientation. Gender identity may not be incorporated in EU law but the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has provided some protection by interpreting discrimination on the basis of “sex”. Despite all the progress in SOGI rights, intersex have not yet received the same attention as the rest of sexual minorities in the EU.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    See Articles 10 and 19, Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union 2012/C 326/01.

  2. 2.

    Article 21 on Non-discrimination, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 2000/C 364/01.

  3. 3.

    See Articles 1 and 2, Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation.

  4. 4.

    ILGA Europe, “European Union and LGBT rights”.

  5. 5.

    See P v. S and Cornwall County Council, Case C-13/94, judgment of 30 April 1996. As it is already mentioned in Chap. 2, “since the equal treatment directives of the European Union operate with closed lists of discrimination grounds, the sex ground was simply the only applicable ground in this instance in the absence of a specific ground of transsexuality or gender identity in EU law”.

  6. 6.

    European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2015), p. 2.

  7. 7.

    European Commission, 2011, p. 9.

  8. 8.

    Council of the European Union, 2013, p. 4.

  9. 9.

    Ghattas (2015), p. 9.

  10. 10.

    European Commission, 2016, p. 5.

  11. 11.

    OII Europe, STATEMENT of the 1st European Intersex Community Event (Vienna, 30–31st of March 2017).

  12. 12.

    Idem.

  13. 13.

    European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2015), p. 7.

  14. 14.

    European Commission, 2011, p. 9.

  15. 15.

    Article 6 of the TFEU: “1. The Union recognises the rights, freedoms and principles set out in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union of 7 December 2000, as adapted at Strasbourg, on 12 December 2007, which shall have the same legal value as the Treaties. The provisions of the Charter shall not extend in any way the competences of the Union as defined in the Treaties. The rights, freedoms and principles in the Charter shall be interpreted in accordance with the general provisions in Title VII of the Charter governing its interpretation and application and with due regard to the explanations referred to in the Charter, that set out the sources of those provisions. 2. The Union shall accede to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Such accession shall not affect the Union’s competences as defined in the Treaties.3. Fundamental rights, as guaranteed by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States, shall constitute general principles of the Union’s law.”

  16. 16.

    Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union.

  17. 17.

    European Union, The EU in brief “Goals and values of the EU”. See also Weatherill (2016) and Oshri et al. (2016).

  18. 18.

    Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Article 1.

  19. 19.

    Idem, Article 2. See also Wilms (2017).

  20. 20.

    Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 2016/C 202/02.

  21. 21.

    Idem, Article 9.

  22. 22.

    Idem, Article 23.

  23. 23.

    Article 119 EEC Treaty; the latter of which became Article 141 EC Treaty upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1999; and presently Article 157 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

  24. 24.

    Wikigender, “Gender Equality Law in the European Union” and See also Burri, S. and Prechal, S., European Network of Legal Experts in the field of Gender Equality,“EU Gender Equality Law – update 2010”, 2010 and Arribas and Carrasco (2003).

  25. 25.

    See Council Directive 75/117/EEC of 10 February 1975 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the application of the principle of equal pay for men and women.

  26. 26.

    The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, signed on 2 October 1997, and entered into force on 1 May 1999. See also Defeis (1999).

  27. 27.

    Treaty of Amsterdam Amending the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties Establishing the European Communities and Certain Related Acts, 1997. See Mos (2013).

  28. 28.

    Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000, (3). See also, Waaldijk and Bonini-Baraldi (2006) and Walters (2007).

  29. 29.

    EqualJus, p. 20.

  30. 30.

    Directive 2004/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States amending Regulation (EEC) No 1612/68 and repealing Directives 64/221/EEC, 68/360/EEC, 72/194/EEC, 73/148/EEC, 75/34/EEC, 75/35/EEC, 90/364/EEC, 90/365/EEC and 93/96/EEC.

  31. 31.

    Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 2016/C 202/02.

  32. 32.

    See also Papadopoulou (2019).

  33. 33.

    See Case C-267/06, Tadao Maruko v. Versorgungsanstalt der deutschen Bühnen, Judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber) of 1 April 2008.

  34. 34.

    Opinion of Advocate General Ruiz-Jarabo Colomer, delivered on 6 September 2007, Case C-267/06, Tadao Maruko v. Versorgungsanstalt der deutschen Bühnen, para. 102.

  35. 35.

    Case C-147/08, Jürgen Römer v. Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber) of 10 May 2011, para. 67 (2).

  36. 36.

    Court of Justice of the European Union, Press Release No. 46/15, “The permanent deferral from blood donation for men who have had sexual relations with another man may be justified, having regard to the situation prevailing in the Member State concerned”.

  37. 37.

    Uladzislau Belavusau and Ivana Isailović, “Gay Blood: Bad Blood? A Brief Analysis of the Léger Case [2015] C-528/13”.

  38. 38.

    Joined Cases C-148/13 to C-150/13, requests for a preliminary ruling under article 267 TFEU, from the Raad van State (Netherlands), made by decision of 20 March 2013, received at the Court on 25 March 2013, in the proceedings, A (C-148/13), B (C-149/13), C (C-150/13) v Staatssecretaris van Veiligheid en Justitie, Judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber), 2 December 2014.

  39. 39.

    EqualRightsTrust, Joined cases A (C-148/13), B (C-149/13), C (C-150/13) v Staatssecretaris van Veiligheid en Justitie Preliminary ruling under article 267 TFEU, from the Raad van State (Netherlands), Case Summary.

  40. 40.

    See Case C- 673/16, Coman and others v. Romania, Judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber) 5 June 2018, para. 45: “the obligation for a Member State to recognise a marriage between persons of the same sex concluded in another Member State in accordance with the law of that state, for the sole purpose of granting a derived right of residence to a third-country national, does not undermine the institution of marriage in the first Member State, which is defined by national law and, as indicated in paragraph 37 above, falls within the competence of the Member States. Such recognition does not require that Member State to provide, in its national law, for the institution of marriage between persons of the same sex. It is confined to the obligation to recognise such marriages, concluded in another Member State in accordance with the law of that state, for the sole purpose of enabling such persons to exercise the rights they enjoy under EU law.”

  41. 41.

    Idem, para. 35.

  42. 42.

    Beury Manon, “The CJEU’s judgment in Coman: a small step for the recognition of same-sex couples underlying European divides over LGBT rights”.

  43. 43.

    See Koppelman (1995).

  44. 44.

    Papadopoulou (2001–2002), p. 252.

  45. 45.

    See also Papadopoulou (2019).

  46. 46.

    EqualRightsTrust, Case Summary: P v. S and Cornwall County Council, Case C-13/94, [1996] IRLR 347.

  47. 47.

    Case C-13/94, P v S and Cornwall County Council. - Reference for a preliminary ruling: Industrial Tribunal, Truro - United Kingdom. - Equal treatment for men and women - Dismissal of a transsexual, Judgment of the Court of 30 April 1996.

  48. 48.

    P. v S. and Cornwall County Council, Opinion of Advocate General Tesauro delivered on 14 December 1995, para. 16.

  49. 49.

    Idem, para. 17.

  50. 50.

    Idem.

  51. 51.

    Opinion of Advocate General Ruiz-Jarabo Colomer delivered on 10 June 2003 K.B. v National Health Service Pensions Agency and Secretary of State for Health Reference for a preliminary ruling: Court of Appeal (England & Wales) (Civil Division) - United Kingdom, para. 74.

  52. 52.

    Idem, para. 78.

  53. 53.

    Idem.

  54. 54.

    See Case C-423/04, Sarah Margaret Richards v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions.

    Reference for a preliminary ruling: Social Security Commissioner—United Kingdom, Judgment of the Court (First Chamber) of 27 April 2006.

  55. 55.

    Idem, para. 24.

  56. 56.

    Council of EU Guidelines, 2013, para. 36.

  57. 57.

    OII Europe, Statement of the 1st European Intersex Community Event (Vienna, 30–31st of March 2017).

  58. 58.

    OII Europe, Malta Declaration (1 December 2013).

  59. 59.

    OII Europe, Statement of the 1st European Intersex Community Event (Vienna, 30–31st of March 2017).

  60. 60.

    See the “Gender Identity Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act”, (Malta, 2015).

  61. 61.

    ILGA Europe, “Intersex”.

  62. 62.

    See European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, “The fundamental rights situation of intersex people”, 2015.

  63. 63.

    Schiek et al. (2007), p. 79.

  64. 64.

    European Commission (2012), p. 82.

  65. 65.

    See Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2000/C 364/01) and Chap. 3.

  66. 66.

    European Union Fundamental Rights Agency, 2015, p. 3.

  67. 67.

    Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, Report on the EU Roadmap against homophobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity, Rapporteur: Ulrike Lunacek.

  68. 68.

    Idem.

  69. 69.

    European Parliament, 2014, para. G.

  70. 70.

    Idem.

  71. 71.

    European Union Fundamental Rights Agency, 2015, p. 4.

  72. 72.

    Idem, p. 7.

  73. 73.

    Idem, p. 1.

  74. 74.

    Idem.

  75. 75.

    European Commission, 2016, p. 5.

  76. 76.

    See Daukšiené and Grigonis (2015) and Kosta et al. (2014).

  77. 77.

    See Greer et al. (2018).

  78. 78.

    See Explanatory report to Protocol No. 12 to the 1950 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, entered into force on 1 April 2005.

  79. 79.

    Icelandic Human Rights Centre, “An overview of the case law on the prohibition of discrimination of the ECJ and the ECtHR”, p. 8.

  80. 80.

    University of Minnesota, Study Guide: Sexual Orientation and Human Rights.

  81. 81.

    See Mouta v. Portugal, Application No. 33290/96, judgment of 21 December 1999.

  82. 82.

    Schalk and Kopf v. Austria, application no. 30141/04, final judgment 22/11/2010, para. 52.

  83. 83.

    See Official Journal of the European Union C 303/17 – 14.12.2007.

  84. 84.

    See Schalk and Kopf v. Austria, application no. 30141/04, final judgment 22/11/2010.

  85. 85.

    Parliamentary Assembly, Resolution 1728 (2010), para. 2.

  86. 86.

    See Karner v. Austria, Application No. 40016/98, judgment of 24 July 2003, para. 37, E. B. v France, Application No. 43546/02, judgment of 22 January 2008, para. 91 and Schalk and Kopf v. Austria, Application No. 30141/04, judgment of 24 June 2010, para. 97.

  87. 87.

    Vallianatos and Others v. Greece, Applications nos. 29381/09 and 32684/09, judgment of 7 November 2013, para. 91.

  88. 88.

    See Oliari and Others v. Italy, Applications nos. 18766/11 and 36030/11, final judgment 21/10/2015.

  89. 89.

    Giuseppe Zago, “Oliari and Others v. Italy: a stepping stone towards full legal recognition of same-sex relationships in Europe”.

  90. 90.

    Idem.

  91. 91.

    Chapin and Charpentier v. France, Application no. 40183/07, final judgment 09 September 2016, para.38.

  92. 92.

    Idem, paras. 45-52.

  93. 93.

    Grégor Puppinck, “The ECHR Unanimously Confirms the Non-existence of a Right to Gay Marriage”.

  94. 94.

    A series of Recommendations have been adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on sexual orientation and gender identity. See Recommendation 1915 (2010) of the Parliamentary Assembly on Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity; Resolution 1728 (2010) of the Parliamentary Assembly on Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity; Recommendation 1635 (2003) of the Parliamentary Assembly on Lesbians and gays in sport; Recommendation 1474 (2000) of the Parliamentary Assembly on situation of lesbians and gays in Council of Europe member states; Recommendation 1470 (2000) of the Parliamentary Assembly on Situation of gays and lesbians and their partners in respect of asylum and immigration in the member states of the Council of Europe; Recommendation 1117 (1989) of the Parliamentary Assembly on the condition of transsexuals; Recommendation 924 (1981) of the Parliamentary Assembly on Discrimination against homosexuals; Resolution 756 (1981) of the Parliamentary Assembly on discrimination against homosexuals.

  95. 95.

    See Resolution 1728 (2010) on “Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity”.

  96. 96.

    See Recommendation 2021 (2013) on “Tackling discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity”.

  97. 97.

    See Recommendation CM/Rec (2010)5 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on measures to combat discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity. The recommendation invites the member states to ensure that the stipulated principles and measures are applied in national legislation, policies and practices relevant to the protection of the human rights of LGBT persons. The recommendation covers a wide range of areas including hate crime, freedoms of association, expression and peaceful assembly, respect for family life and private life, employment, education, health, housing, sports, asylum, national human rights structures and discrimination on multiple grounds. While it is not a legally binding instrument, all Council of Europe member states should implement this recommendation (Council of Europe Publishing, 2011, p. 38).

  98. 98.

    European Centre for Law & Justice, “Council of Europe Adopted Resolution Creating New Controversial Rights on Gender Identity”.

  99. 99.

    Oxford Human Rights Hub (2013), “Equality v Human Rights?: Same sex marriage and religious liberty”.

  100. 100.

    Lauri (2011), p. 12.

  101. 101.

    Icelandic Human Rights Centre, “An overview of the case law on the prohibition of discrimination of the ECJ and the ECtHR”, p. 7.

  102. 102.

    Christine Goodwin v. the United Kingdom, Application no. 28957/95, judgment of 11 July 2002, para. 77.

  103. 103.

    Idem, para. 82.

  104. 104.

    Idem, para. 93.

  105. 105.

    Idem, para. 100.

  106. 106.

    Silvis (2014), p. 33.

  107. 107.

    Idem.

  108. 108.

    Icelandic Human Rights Centre, “An overview of the case law on the prohibition of discrimination of the ECJ and the ECtHR”, p. 8.

  109. 109.

    Van Kuck v. Germany, application no. 35968/97, judgment of 12 June 2003, para. 73.

  110. 110.

    Idem, para. 75.

  111. 111.

    Idem, para. 84.

  112. 112.

    Y.Y. v. Turkey, Application no. 14793/08, final judgment 10 June 2015.

  113. 113.

    Idem, para. 102.

  114. 114.

    Ivana Isailovic, “The Y.Y. v. Turkey case and trans individuals’ gender recognition”.

  115. 115.

    Idem.

  116. 116.

    Identoba and Others v. Georgia, judgment of 12 May 2015.

  117. 117.

    A.P., Garçon and Nicot v. France, Applications nos. 79885/12, 52471/13 and 52596/13, judgment of 6 April 2017.

  118. 118.

    Idem, para. 92.

  119. 119.

    Idem, para. 95.

  120. 120.

    Pieter Cannoot, “A.P., Garçon and Nicot v. France: the Court draws a line for trans rights”.

  121. 121.

    Idem.

  122. 122.

    PACE Resolution 1952, 2013, para. 7.5.3.

  123. 123.

    See Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics,On the management of differences of sex development: Ethical issues relating to “intersexuality”, Opinion No. 20/2012, 2012.

  124. 124.

    See Défenseur des droits, Opinion No. 17-04, 20 February 2017.

  125. 125.

    See Sénat, rapport d’information no 441 (2016-2017), footnote 8 above, recommendations 3, 4, 5 and 8.

  126. 126.

    Doc. 14404 of the Parliamentary Assembly, 2017, para. 75.

  127. 127.

    Resolution 2191 (2017) of the Parliamentary Assembly, para. 7.1.1.

  128. 128.

    Idem, para. 7.1.2.

  129. 129.

    Idem, para. 7.3.3.

  130. 130.

    Idem, para. 7.3.5.

  131. 131.

    Idem, para. 7.4.

  132. 132.

    See Council of Europe, “Human Rights and Intersex people”, Issue paper published by the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, first edition April 2015.

  133. 133.

    Council of Europe, 2015, para. 4, p. 9.

  134. 134.

    Idem, para. 8, p. 9.

  135. 135.

    See Zillén et al. (2017).

  136. 136.

    See Higgins (2012) and Voeten (2017).

  137. 137.

    European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2015, p. 1.

  138. 138.

    ILGA Europe, OII Europe, 2015, p. 14.

  139. 139.

    European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2015), p. 5.

  140. 140.

    Verfassungsgerichtshof Österreich, “Distinction between marriage and registered partnership violates ban on discrimination”.

  141. 141.

    Idem.

  142. 142.

    Idem.

  143. 143.

    See X. and others v. Austria, application 19010/07.

  144. 144.

    International Justice Resource Center, “In X. and Others v. Austria, ECtHR Finds Discriminatory Restriction on Same-Sex Couple Adoption Violates Convention”.

  145. 145.

    See Constitutional Court Freyung 8, A-1010 Vienna G 119-120/2014-12 11 December 2014.

  146. 146.

    Austria Constitutional Court, Important decisions, Identification: AUT-2015-1-001.

  147. 147.

    ILGA-Europe, Rainbow Map, “Austria”.

  148. 148.

    Austria/BGBl 1983/60, last amended by BGBl I 2005/100.

  149. 149.

    Austria/BGBl 1988/195, last amended by BGBl 1995/25.

  150. 150.

    BMI Zahl: 36.250/66-IV/4/9, (27.11.1996).

  151. 151.

    Nowak (2010), p. 27.

  152. 152.

    Idem.

  153. 153.

    See Verfassungsgerichtshof/B947/05, from 21.06.2006.

  154. 154.

    See para. 3 of Namensänderungsgesetz where entry in civil registry is merely defined as of declaratory nature,

  155. 155.

    ILGA-Europe, Rainbow Map, “Austria”.

  156. 156.

    Idem.

  157. 157.

    See VwGH Zl. 2008/17/0054-8 from 27. 2. 2009.

  158. 158.

    See Verwaltungsgerichtshof/2008/06/0032 from 15.09.2009.

  159. 159.

    See Verfassungsgerichtshof/B1973/08 from 03.12.2009.

  160. 160.

    ILGA-Europe, Rainbow Map, “Austria”.

  161. 161.

    Idem.

  162. 162.

    Idem.

  163. 163.

    Idem.

  164. 164.

    Idem.

  165. 165.

    See VfGH G 77/2018 and Library of Congress, “Austria: Court Allows Intersex Individuals to Register Third Gender Other Than Male or Female”.

  166. 166.

    VfGH G 77/2018, paras. 18 and 23.

  167. 167.

    Verwaltungsgerichtshof Österreich, “Intersex persons have the right to adequate entry into civil register”.

  168. 168.

    Idem.

  169. 169.

    Idem, para. 39.

  170. 170.

    See Sect. 4.3.2.3.

  171. 171.

    Act on Registered Life Partnerships of 16 February 2001 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 266), Section 1 (1), (official English version).

  172. 172.

    See Act on Registered Life Partnerships of 16 February 2001 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 266), last amended by Article 2 of the Act of 20 July 2017 (official English version).

  173. 173.

    Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB) § 1353 Eheliche Lebensgemeinschaft, (1) Die Ehe wird von zwei Personen verschiedenen oder gleichen Geschlechts auf Lebenszeit geschlossen (translated by the author).

  174. 174.

    Deutsche Welle, “German president signs gay marriage bill into law”.

  175. 175.

    Civil Code (BGB), Section 1741 Admissibility of the adoption (official English version).

  176. 176.

    See Act on Registered Life Partnerships, Section 9 Stipulations in respect of children of a life partner (official English version).

  177. 177.

    See Act Implementing European Directives Putting into Effect the Principle of Equal Treatment, Section 2 (official English version).

  178. 178.

    Act Implementing European Directives Putting into Effect the Principle of Equal Treatment, Section 1 (official English version).

  179. 179.

    Landesverfassung der Freien Hansestadt Bremen, Artikel 2.

  180. 180.

    International Models Project on Women’s Rights, “Current Legal Framework: Transgender Issues in Germany”.

  181. 181.

    Gesetz über die Änderung der Vornamen und die Feststellung der Geschlechtszugehörigkeit in besonderen Fällen(Transsexuellengesetz – TSG, Erster Abschnitt, §1 Voraussetzungen.

  182. 182.

    Idem, Zweiter Abschnitt, § 8 Voraussetzungen.

  183. 183.

    Translated quotations from the German Bundestag debate on the bill (164th session of the 8th electoral term): Member of the Bundestag Dr. Rolf Meinecke (SPD), Plenarprotokoll 8/164, p. 13174, and Member of the Bundestag Torsten Wolfgramm (FDP), Plenarprotokoll 8/164, p. 13175. See Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, “Report on Reform of the Transsexuals Act (Transsexuellengesetz),2016, p. 5.

  184. 184.

    Entscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts [BVerfGE] [Federal Constitutional Court] May 27, 2008, 1 Bundesverfassungsgericht BvL 10/05.

  185. 185.

    International Commission of Jurists, BvL 10/05, Federal Constitutional Court of Germany (27 May 2008) (Case summary).

  186. 186.

    Idem.

  187. 187.

    Idem.

  188. 188.

    Alternative Report Follow-up Germany 2011 submitted by German Women’s Rights Organisations in Response to the Written Information of Germany on the steps undertaken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 40 and 62 and as requested as a follow up report in paragraph 67 of the Concluding Observations of the CEDAW Committee, 12 February 2009 [CEDAW/C/DEU/CO/6], p. 17.

  189. 189.

    International Commission of Jurists, 1 BvR 3295-07, Federal Constitutional Court, Germany (11 January 2011) (Case summary).

  190. 190.

    Idem.

  191. 191.

    Idem.

  192. 192.

    Idem.

  193. 193.

    Idem.

  194. 194.

    Transgender Europe, “German Experts demand urgent Action for Trans Rights”.

  195. 195.

    Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, “Report on Reform of the Transsexuals Act (Transsexuellengesetz),2016, p. 10.

  196. 196.

    Idem.

  197. 197.

    Idem, p. 16.

  198. 198.

    Idem.

  199. 199.

    Idem, p. 5.

  200. 200.

    Association of Intersexual People/XY-Women (Verein Intersexuelle Menschen e.V. / XY-Frauen), Shadow Report to the 6th National Report of the Federal Republic of Germany on the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), 2008.

  201. 201.

    Idem.

  202. 202.

    Idem.

  203. 203.

    Statement of the German Ethics Council on Intersexuality, 2012, p. 4.

  204. 204.

    Idem, p. 5.

  205. 205.

    See Klöppel (2016).

  206. 206.

    CEDAW/C/DEU/7-8, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention, Seventh and eighth periodic reports of States parties due in 2014, Germany.

  207. 207.

    The United Nations Office at Geneva, “Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women Considers the Reports of Germany” CEDAW17/009E.

  208. 208.

    Section 1631c of the Civil Code: Prohibition of sterilization: “The parents may not consent to a sterilization of the child. Nor can the child itself consent to the sterilization. […].”(official English version).

  209. 209.

    Amnesty International (2017), p. 51.

  210. 210.

    Christiane Völling is now identifying as female. Therefore, the words “she” and “her” will be used in this text.

  211. 211.

    International Commission of Jurists, In re Völliing, Regional Court Cologne, 6 February 2008 (Case summary).

  212. 212.

    In re Völliing, Regional Court Cologne, 6 February 2008, (English version), para. 7.

  213. 213.

    Idem, para. 8.

  214. 214.

    In re Völliing, Regional Court Cologne, 6 February 2008, (English version).

  215. 215.

    Idem, para. 11.

  216. 216.

    Idem.

  217. 217.

    International Commission of Jurists, In re Völliing, Regional Court Cologne, 6 February 2008 (Case summary).

  218. 218.

    Idem.

  219. 219.

    Idem.

  220. 220.

    Zwischengeschlecht, “Nuremberg Hermaphrodite Lawsuit: Michaela “Micha” Raab Wins Damages and Compensation for Intersex Genital Mutilations”.

  221. 221.

    Idem.

  222. 222.

    Idem.

  223. 223.

    Idem.

  224. 224.

    Bundestag document, Bundestagsdrucksache – BTDrucks 17/9088, p. 59 (translation by the German Ethics Council).

  225. 225.

    The Bundestag on 31 January 2013 unanimously adopted recommendation 17/12192, see Deutscher Bundestag Drucksache 17/12192.

  226. 226.

    Section 22(3) of the German Civil Status Law as translated by OII Europe.

  227. 227.

    OII Europe, “Sham package for Intersex: Leaving sex entry open is not an option”.

  228. 228.

    Council of Europe (2015), p. 38.

  229. 229.

    Reuters, “German high court rejects ‘intersex’ as third gender category”.

  230. 230.

    BVerfG, Order of the First Senate of 10 October 2017- 1 BvR 2019/16- paras. (1-69).

  231. 231.

    Idem, Section 1. “The general right of personality protects the complainant’s gender identity”.

  232. 232.

    Idem, para. 50.

  233. 233.

    Amnesty International (2017), p. 52.

  234. 234.

    BVerfG, Order of the First Senate of 10 October 2017- 1 BvR 2019/16, para. 65.

  235. 235.

    Transgender Europe, “Germany introduces Third Gender – fails Trans People”.

  236. 236.

    Idem.

  237. 237.

    OII Europe, “Really Germany? Germany misses the chance for basing its third gender marker law on human rights”.

  238. 238.

    Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB) § 1353 Eheliche Lebensgemeinschaft, (1) Die Ehe wird von zwei Personen verschiedenen oder gleichen Geschlechts auf Lebenszeit geschlossen.

  239. 239.

    See Deutscher Ethikrat, 2012.

  240. 240.

    Civil Code (BGB), Section 1741 Admissibility of the adoption (official English version).

  241. 241.

    The Constitution of Greece, Article 21 (1).

  242. 242.

    See Dagtoglou Prodromos (2005).

  243. 243.

    Fessas (2011), p. 192.

  244. 244.

    See Papadopoulou (2008), Vidalis (19960, Papazisi (2007) and Vangelis Mallios, “A right to marry: Constitutional privilege of Heterosexuals or Right of Homosexuals as well?”.

  245. 245.

    See Civil Code, Chapter Two: Marriage.

  246. 246.

    Supreme Court, Decision 1428/2017.

  247. 247.

    Idem, para. 2.

  248. 248.

    See Mallios (2010) and Karavokyris (2015).

  249. 249.

    See Pervou (2014).

  250. 250.

    Vallianatos and Others v. Greece, Applications nos. 29381/09 and 32684/09, judgment of 7 November 2013, para. 3.

  251. 251.

    Idem.

  252. 252.

    Idem, para. 80.

  253. 253.

    Idem, para. 91.

  254. 254.

    Greek Law regulating the Civil Union, (English version on constitutionalism.gr).

  255. 255.

    Council of State, Decision 2003/2018, para. 14.

  256. 256.

    See Council of State, Decision 2003/2018 and on the evolution of the notion of “family” in Europe and Greece see Papadopoulou (2015).

  257. 257.

    Law 4538/2018.

  258. 258.

    Law 4285/2014, Article 1.

  259. 259.

    Law 4356/2015, Article 81A and Article 29.

  260. 260.

    Law 4443/2016.

  261. 261.

    See Fountedaki (2017) and Papadopoulou (2017).

  262. 262.

    See Law 4144/2013.

  263. 263.

    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, “Historical Court decision on gender recognition without surgery”.

  264. 264.

    Law 4491/2017, Article 3.

  265. 265.

    Idem, Article 3 (3) and Article 4.

  266. 266.

    Transgender Europe, “New Greek Gender Recognition law fails human rights”.

  267. 267.

    Draft Law of the Legislative Committee of the Ministry of Justice as of 18 November 2016.

  268. 268.

    See Bill of Ministry of Justice, Transparency and Human Rights, “Legal Recognition of Gender Identity- National Mechanism for the preparation, monitoring and evaluation of action plans for children’s rights”.

  269. 269.

    The applicant identifies with “it”.

  270. 270.

    County Court of Marousi, Decision 67/2018.

  271. 271.

    Idem.

  272. 272.

    Idem.

  273. 273.

    European Union Fundamental Rights Agency, 2015, p. 4.

  274. 274.

    Galanou (2014), p. 94.

  275. 275.

    Draft Law of the Legislative Committee of the Ministry of Justice as of 18 November 2016, Article 7, para. 1.

  276. 276.

    One-member First-Instance Court of Heraklion, 255/2013.

  277. 277.

    Law 4356/2015, Article 17.

  278. 278.

    Idem, Article 21.

  279. 279.

    Idem, Article 29.

  280. 280.

    Efsyn.gr, “First time, equal before the law”.

  281. 281.

    Law 4443/2016, Part A.

  282. 282.

    Greek Law regulating the Civil Union, (English version on constitutionalism. gr).

  283. 283.

    Decision 39/22-1-2016 of the Minister of Interior that amends the previous decision 131360/12476/8-5-2013.

  284. 284.

    Civil Unions Act 2014, Chapter 530.

  285. 285.

    Cohabitation Act 2017.

  286. 286.

    Idem.

  287. 287.

    Marriage Act and other Laws (Amendment) of 2017, Act No. XXIII of 2017.

  288. 288.

    Idem.

  289. 289.

    Act No. XXIV of 2018, An Act to amend the Embryo Protection Act, Cap. 524, para. 2 (d).

  290. 290.

    See Joanne Cassar against Malta, Application no. 36982/11.

  291. 291.

    See Civil Code (Amendment) Act, 2013.

  292. 292.

    Constitution of Malta, para. 32.

  293. 293.

    Dalli, “Transgender Europe applauds Malta for naming gender identity”.

  294. 294.

    See Employment and Industrial Relations Act (Cap. 452), Equal Treatment in Employment (Amendment) Regulations, 2014.

  295. 295.

    Ministry for Social Dialogue, Consumer Affairs and Civil Liberties, Gender Identity, Gender Expression & Sex Characteristics Act.

  296. 296.

    Gender Identity, Gender Expression & Sex Characteristics Act, Chapter 540, para. 2.

  297. 297.

    Idem, para. 4.

  298. 298.

    Idem, para. 3 (2) (a) and (b).

  299. 299.

    Idem, para. 15 (2).

  300. 300.

    Affirmation of Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Gender Expression Act, Chapter 567.

  301. 301.

    Idem, para. 3.

  302. 302.

    Gender Identity, Gender Expression & Sex Characteristics Act, para. 14 (1).

  303. 303.

    Idem, para. 14 (2).

  304. 304.

    Idem.

  305. 305.

    Idem, para. 14 (5) (a).

  306. 306.

    See LN 44 of 2018.

  307. 307.

    LGBTIQ Equality Strategy & Action Plan 2018-2022, P. 8.

  308. 308.

    OII Europe, “Press Release: OII-Europe applauds Malta’s Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act”.

  309. 309.

    Transgender Europe, “Malta Adopts Ground-breaking Trans and Intersex Law”.

  310. 310.

    See Gender Identity, Gender Expression & Sex Characteristics Act, Chapter 540 and Transgender Europe, “Malta Adopts Ground-breaking Trans and Intersex Law”.

  311. 311.

    Dalli, “Male, Female or X: the new gender options on identification documents”.

  312. 312.

    Idem.

  313. 313.

    See Sect. 4.3.4.1.

  314. 314.

    LGBTIQ Equality Strategy & Action Plan 2018–2022, p. 8.

  315. 315.

    See Law No. 1/2004, of 24th of July Sixth Constitutional Revision (Lei n. 1/2004, de 24 de Julho, Sexta Revisão Constitucional).

  316. 316.

    Constitute, Portugal’s Constitution of 1976 with Amendments through 2005.

  317. 317.

    Law No. 23/2010, Article 1 (2).

  318. 318.

    See Law No. 9/2010, Article 1.

  319. 319.

    Law No. 2/2016, Article 5.

  320. 320.

    Law No. 7/2011, Article 3 (b).

  321. 321.

    Reuters, “Portugal approves law to boost transgender rights, protect intersex infants”.

  322. 322.

    BBC, “Portugal’s president vetoes new gender-change law”.

  323. 323.

    Law No. 38/2018, Articles 1, 3, 6.

  324. 324.

    Idem, Article 2.

  325. 325.

    Idem, Article 1.

  326. 326.

    Idem, Article 2.

  327. 327.

    Idem, Article 4.

  328. 328.

    Idem, Article 5.

  329. 329.

    Idem, Article 7 (3).

  330. 330.

    OII Europe, “Portugal adopts law protecting intersex people”.

  331. 331.

    StopIGM, “Portugal: New Law Fails to Protect Intersex Children from IGM”.

  332. 332.

    This thesis was conducted before March 2018 when it is scheduled that the UK will leave the European Union.

  333. 333.

    For the situation of intersex on Jersey, see “Discrimination (Sex and Related Characterisics) (Jersey) Regulations 2015”.

  334. 334.

    Exposition of motives III.

  335. 335.

    Scottish Offences (Aggravation by Prejudice) Act 2009, Article 8 (a) (b).

  336. 336.

    Gardham, “Scotland to give legal recognition to people who are neither male nor female”.

  337. 337.

    European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2015, p. 4 and ILGA Europe, OII Europe, 2015, p. 15 (the report published by ILGA and OII Europe uses the FRA report as a reference). The reports also include Austria but the situation in the country has changed recently to cover intersex explicitly.

  338. 338.

    European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2015, p. 4.

  339. 339.

    Transgender Europe, “Belgium-New Gender Recognition Law with obstacles”.

  340. 340.

    Transgender Europe, “Belgium: Legal Gender Recognition Law (2017)”.

  341. 341.

    Idem.

  342. 342.

    Idem.

  343. 343.

    ILGA Europe, Rainbow Map, “Belgium”.

  344. 344.

    See StopIGM.org, “Denamrk: UN slams intersex genital mutilation-again!” and CRC/C/DNK/CO/5 “Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Denmark∗”.

  345. 345.

    CRC/C/DNK/CO/5, 2017, para. 24.

  346. 346.

    StopIGM.org/Zwischengeschlecht.org, 2018, pp. 7–10.

  347. 347.

    Amnesty International (2017), p. 51.

  348. 348.

    Idem.

  349. 349.

    ILGA Europe, Rainbow Map, “Denmark”.

  350. 350.

    See Gender Identity Law (Lov om ændring af lov om Det Centrale Personregister).

  351. 351.

    Transgender Europe, “Historic Danish Gender Recognition Law comes into Force”.

  352. 352.

    Idem.

  353. 353.

    Idem.

  354. 354.

    Transgender Europe, “Denmark: X in Passports and New Trans Law Works”.

  355. 355.

    National Advisory Board on Social Welfare and Health Care Ethics ETENE, 2016, p. 2.

  356. 356.

    Idem.

  357. 357.

    Idem.

  358. 358.

    See Trasek ry and Seta ry, 2016, p. 5 and Act on Legal Recognition of the Gender of Transsexuals (the Trans Act) Article 1 para. 1.

  359. 359.

    See Idem and A decree of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health on the organisation of the examination and treatment aiming at the change of gender as well as on the medical statement for the confirmation of gender of a transsexual.

  360. 360.

    Trasek ry and Seta ry, 2016, p. 5.

  361. 361.

    Transgender Europe, “More equality for trans persons in Finland”.

  362. 362.

    ILGA Europe and OII Europe, 2015, p. 15.

  363. 363.

    StopIGM.org/ Zwischengeschlecht.org (2015), p. 6.

  364. 364.

    CRC/C/IRL/CO/3-4, 2016, para. 39.

  365. 365.

    Idem, para. 40 (a) (b).

  366. 366.

    McDonald (2015).

  367. 367.

    Gender Recognition Act 2015, Number 25 of 2015.

  368. 368.

    Idem, Section 10 “Requirements on application for a gender recognition certificate”.

  369. 369.

    The Guardian, “Ireland passes law allowing trans people to choose their legal gender”.

  370. 370.

    Idem.

  371. 371.

    National Ethics Commission (Commission Nationale d’Éthique), “Opinion 27 Opinion regarding gender diversity”, July 2017 and for information on the situation of intersex infants and children in Luxembourg see Intersex & Transgender Luxembourg, “Complément Commun au Rapport supplémentaire au 3e et 4e rapport national (2001-2009) sur les droits de l’enfant au Luxembourg, Les droits des enfants trans’ et des enfants intersexes, L’exemple de leur situation au Luxembourg”, November 2012.

  372. 372.

    National Ethics Commission, 2017, p. 1.

  373. 373.

    Idem, p. 15.

  374. 374.

    CEDAW/C/LUX/CO/6-7, 2018, para. 28.

  375. 375.

    Rosa Lëtzebuerg Centre of Information Gay and Lesbian Luxembourg, 2018, p. 7.

  376. 376.

    Bill to amend the mention of sex and of the first names in civil status and to modify the Civil Code (Projet de loi relative à la modification de la mention du sexe et du ou des prénoms à l’état civil et portant modification du Code civil), Article 1.

  377. 377.

    Idem, p. 11, Article 1.

  378. 378.

    Idem, Article 2.

  379. 379.

    Luxembourg Times, “New law facilitates transgender, intersex name and gender change”.

  380. 380.

    See Equal Rights Act 1994 as translated to English by Equal Rights Trust.

  381. 381.

    See Explanatory report to make explicit the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of gender identity and gender expression in the Equal Treatment Act (Verkenning expliciteren verbod van discriminatie op grond van genderidentiteit en genderexpressie in de Algemene wet gelijke behandeling (Awgb), 2016.

  382. 382.

    Idem, pp. 6–7.

  383. 383.

    Winq., “Eindelijk: officieel verbod op transgenderdiscriminatie”.

  384. 384.

    Netherlands Network Intersex/DSD, “Eerste Nederlandse paspoort zonder geslachtsregistratie’” (in Dutch).

  385. 385.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 298.

  386. 386.

    Idem.

  387. 387.

    Idem.

  388. 388.

    See Rechtbank’s-Gravenhage, 12.07.2004, ECLI:NL:RBSGR:2004:AQ7020 and Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 298.

  389. 389.

    Human Rights Watch, “The Netherlands: Victory for Transgender Rights” and Act of 18 December 2013 amending Book 1 of the Civil Code and the Municipal Personal Records Database Act in connection with changing the conditions for the authority to change the indication of sex in the birth certificate (Wet van 18 december 2013 tot wijziging van Boek 1 van het Burgerlijk Wetboek en de Wet gemeentelijke basisadministratie persoonsgegevens in verband met het wijzigen van de voorwaarden voor en de bevoegdheid ter zake van wijziging van de vermelding van het geslacht in de akte van geboorte).

  390. 390.

    Idem.

  391. 391.

    Idem.

  392. 392.

    Then Article 1:17(2) Burgerlijk Wetboek (BW), the Dutch Civil Code, as referred by Marjolein van den Brink, See Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 296.

  393. 393.

    Then Article 1:29 BW, as referred by Marjolein van den Brink, See Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 296.

  394. 394.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 296.

  395. 395.

    Idem.

  396. 396.

    Article 1:19(d) BW read in conjunction with Article 45(1) Besluit Burgerlijke Stand (BBS) 1994 as referred by Marjolein van den Brink, See Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 296.

  397. 397.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 296.

  398. 398.

    See Rechtbank Limburg, 28-05-2018, C/03/232248 / FA RK 17-687.

  399. 399.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 300.

  400. 400.

    Idem and Rechtbank Limburg, 06.11.2017, C/03/232248 / FA RK 17-687, ECLI:NL: RBLIM:2017:10713.

  401. 401.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 300.

  402. 402.

    Idem.

  403. 403.

    Idem, p. 301.

  404. 404.

    See Sects. 3.5.1.2 and 3.5.1.3.

  405. 405.

    Dittrich Boris, “Dutch Court Signals Need for Gender Neutral Option”.

  406. 406.

    Idem.

  407. 407.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 301.

  408. 408.

    StopIGM.org, “The Netherlands questioned over Intersex Genital Mutilations- Gov promises “discussions”- Reprimands expected today”.

  409. 409.

    Federatie van Nederlandse Verenigingen tot Integratie van Homoseksualiteit – COC Nederland Nederlands Netwerk voor Intersekse/DSD - NNID Transgender Netwerk Nederland – TNN, 2016, para. 9.

  410. 410.

    Idem, para. 12 (a).

  411. 411.

    Idem, para. 34.

  412. 412.

    CAT/C/NLD/7, 2018, para. 52.

  413. 413.

    Danish Institute for Human Rights, 2009, p. 10.

  414. 414.

    Idem.

  415. 415.

    See Accept and ECPI, “Persoane trans în România: Recunoaşterea juridică a identităţii de gen”

    2014.

  416. 416.

    See Civil Code (Codul Civil actualizat 2015), Law no. 119/1996 regarding civil status acts and documents, republished (LEGE nr. 119 din 16 octombrie 1996 (∗∗republicată∗∗)(∗actualizată∗) cu privire la actele de stare civilă∗), Government Ordinance no 41/2003 regarding the administrative procedures for the acquisition and modification of names (Ordonanța nr. 41/2003 privind dobândirea și schimbarea pe cale administrativă a numelor persoanelor fizice) and ILGA Europe, Rainbow Map, “Romania”.

  417. 417.

    U.S. Department of State, 2016, p. 42.

  418. 418.

    ILGA Europe, Rainbow Map, “Romania”.

  419. 419.

    Idem.

  420. 420.

    X. against Romania and Y. against Romania (Applications no. 2145/16 and 20607/16).

  421. 421.

    Transgender Europe, “Third Party Intervention X v Romania and Y v Romania”.

  422. 422.

    ILGA Europe, 2018, p. 109.

  423. 423.

    Constitution, Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia Nos. 33/91-I, 42/97, 66/2000, 24/03, 69/04, 68/06, and 47/13 (Ustava, Uradni list RS, št. 33/91-I, 42/97, 66/2000, 24/03, 69/04, 68/06, 47/13).

  424. 424.

    See Mavcic and Avbelj (2008).

  425. 425.

    Danish Institute for Human Rights, 2009, p. 11.

  426. 426.

    ILGA Europe, Rainbow Map, “Slovenia”.

  427. 427.

    Idem.

  428. 428.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 255.

  429. 429.

    Sweden’s Gender Recognition Act (1972:119) as reformed in 2012, para. 1 (English version).

  430. 430.

    Idem, para. 2.

  431. 431.

    For the historical background of the Gender Recognition Act see Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 262, and Chapter “The Legal Status of Intersex Persons in Sweden”, 1.2. Legal background and evolution in particular by Jameson Garland.

  432. 432.

    Idem.

  433. 433.

    See International Commission of Jurists, “No. 1968-12, Administrative Court of Appeals of Stockholm, Sweden (19 December 2012)”. In 2017, the Administrative Court of Appeals of Stockholm found that a woman who was born male had the right to change her legal identity back to that of a man, even though she had female genitalia after a gender reassignment surgery. The Court concluded that the person had displayed male gender identification for a sufficiently long time and for a sufficiently stable period, so that ambivalence could not be weighed as a factor in the case. (See Global Legal Monitor, “Sweden: Court Says Previous Sex Change Not a Bar to Second Change of Legal Gender Identity”).

  434. 434.

    In an effort to move away from previous abusive provisions, a government compensation scheme was announced for trans people who had been sterilised in 2013 and was adopted by the Parliament in 2018 (ILGA Europe, Rainbow Map, “Sweden”).

  435. 435.

    See Swedish government report SOU 2014:91 and Swedish Secretariat for Gender Research, “Government inquiry leaves out intersex people”.

  436. 436.

    Swedish Secretariat for Gender Research, “Government inquiry leaves out intersex people”.

  437. 437.

    See Garland (2016).

  438. 438.

    The Local, “Sweden to modernize law on changing gender”.

  439. 439.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 257, mentioned on the Chapter “The Legal Status of Intersex Persons in Sweden” by Jameson Garland.

  440. 440.

    See Folkbokföringslag (1991:481) para. 24 and Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 266.

  441. 441.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 274.

  442. 442.

    CRC/C/FRA/CO/5, 2016, para. 47. France has been reprimanded three times in total for this issue by the UN: In January 2016 by the Committee on the Rights of the Child, in May 2016 by the Committee against Torture, and in July 2016 by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (See StopIGM.org., “There we go (2): France condemns “mutilation of intersex children”, proposes “prohibition”).

  443. 443.

    Idem, para. 48 (b).

  444. 444.

    See Information Report compiled on behalf of the delegation to women’s rights and equal opportunities between men and women on variations of sexual development: lift a taboo, fight stigma and exclusions by Maryvonne Blondin and Corinne Bouchoux, Senators, 2017 (Rapport d’information fait au nom de la délégation aux droits des femmes et à l’égalité des chances entre les hommes et les femmes sur les variations du développement sexuel : lever un tabou, lutter contre la stigmatisation et les exclusions, Par Mmes Maryvonne Blondin et Corinne Bouchoux, Sénatrices).

  445. 445.

    Société, “Vincent Guillot: Il faut cesser les mutilations des enfants intersexes en France”.

  446. 446.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 311.

  447. 447.

    See Decision n. 531 of 4 Mai 2017 (16-17.189), Court of Cassation, First Civil Chamber, (Arrêt n° 531 du 4 mai 2017 (16-17.189) - Cour de cassation - Première chambre civile -ECLI:FR:CCASS:2017:C100531) (in French).

  448. 448.

    Idem, para. 8, as translated by Benjamin Moron-Puech.

  449. 449.

    Idem.

  450. 450.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 316.

  451. 451.

    European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2015), p. 4.

  452. 452.

    Idem.

  453. 453.

    Idem.

  454. 454.

    In Bulgaria, a highly controversial judgment of the Supreme Court of Cassation stated that gender reassignment surgeries were not necessary to modify one’s legal gender but people requesting a legal change of gender do have to undergo hormone therapy. See ILGA Europe (2018), pp. 50–51.

  455. 455.

    In Italy, the Law on Transsexualism is not based on self-determination, but some restrictions are imposed to individuals who wish to modify their gender on identification documents. See ILGA Europe, 2018, pp. 78–79 and Rainbow Europe, “Italy”.

  456. 456.

    In Poland, the absence of any clear protocol or training for medical professionals was highlighted in a comparative study and the recommendations of that report included the introduction of a legal gender recognition process based on self-determination, underlining the glaring legal gap. See ILGA Europe (2018), pp. 104–105.

  457. 457.

    In Slovakia, there is no fair, transparent legal framework for legal gender recognition, based on a process of self-determination, free from abusive requirements. See ILGA Europe (2018), pp. 116–117.

  458. 458.

    See ILGA Europe, “Annual Review of the Human Rights Situation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex People in Europe”, 2018.

  459. 459.

    In Estonia, there is no fair, transparent legal framework for legal gender recognition, based on a process of self-determination, free from abusive requirements. See ILGA Europe (2018), pp. 60–61.

  460. 460.

    In Hungary, towards the end of 2017, a new decree was added to the national birth registry regulations and now legal gender recognition has a legal basis for the first time. However, the procedure still needs to be improved by introducing a clear framework, free from abusive requirements. See ILGA Europe (2018), pp. 72–73.

  461. 461.

    See ILGA Europe, “Annual Review of the Human Rights Situation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex People in Europe”, 2018.

  462. 462.

    European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Update 2015, p. 71.

  463. 463.

    See Sect. 4.1.3.

  464. 464.

    European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Update 2015, p. 70.

  465. 465.

    Travis (2015), p. 199.

  466. 466.

    European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Update 2015, p. 71.

  467. 467.

    “In 2008, the European Commission proposed a directive that would ban discrimination on the grounds of age, disability, religion or belief and sexual orientation in all areas of EU competence, but the proposed directive is yet to be adopted.” See ILGA Europe, “Employment”. “The proposed Directive, if adopted, will extend the protection from discrimination on the grounds of religion or belief, disability, age, or sexual orientation to the areas of social protection, education and access to goods and services. This Directive would eliminate the hierarchy of rights that currently exists in the EU by giving the listed grounds the same protections guaranteed under the Race Directive.” See ILGA Europe, “Equality for All”.

  468. 468.

    ILGA-Europe, “Anti-discrimination law”.

  469. 469.

    See Sect. 1.6.2.

  470. 470.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 379.

  471. 471.

    Idem.

  472. 472.

    Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB) § 1353 Eheliche Lebensgemeinschaft, (1) Die Ehe wird von zwei Personen verschiedenen oder gleichen Geschlechts auf Lebenszeit geschlossen (translated by the author).

  473. 473.

    See Deutscher Ethikrat, ‘Intersexualität”, 2012.

  474. 474.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 375. See Chap. 4 and the cases of Australia and New Zealand where marriage is an institution between “two persons”.

  475. 475.

    Idem.

  476. 476.

    BT-Drucks 17/9088, p. 59 (Empfehlung No. 4 zum Personenstandsrecht).

  477. 477.

    See Büchler and Cottier (2005).

  478. 478.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 380.

  479. 479.

    Idem.

  480. 480.

    See Table 3.4. Legislation, case law, practices on intersex people’s rights in Asia.

  481. 481.

    See Table 3.3. Legislation, case law, practices on intersex people’s rights in Oceania.

  482. 482.

    See Table 3.2. Legislation, case law, practices on intersex people’s rights in Americas.

  483. 483.

    See Sect. 3.6.2.

  484. 484.

    Scherpe et al. (2018), p. 364.

  485. 485.

    Idem, as referred by Tanya Ni Mhuirthile.

  486. 486.

    Idem.

  487. 487.

    Rudevska (2018), p. 104.

  488. 488.

    Idem.

  489. 489.

    Barak (2007), p. 4.

  490. 490.

    Idem, p. 11.

  491. 491.

    Idem.

  492. 492.

    Rudevska (2018), p. 109.

  493. 493.

    Idem, p. 110.

  494. 494.

    Idem.

  495. 495.

    Idem, p. 111.

  496. 496.

    See Sect. 1.5.2.

  497. 497.

    Rudevska (2018), p. 104.

  498. 498.

    Papadopoulou (2015), p. 55.

  499. 499.

    Mos (2013), p. 81.

  500. 500.

    Council of Europe, “Values: Human rights, Democracy, Rule of Law”.

  501. 501.

    Wallby (2004), p. 6.

  502. 502.

    P. v S. AND Cornwall County Council Opinion of Advocate General Tesauro delivered on 14 December 1995, para. 8.

  503. 503.

    See Pachmann (2017), Chopin and Macek (2018) and Kanellopoulou-Malouhou (2012).

  504. 504.

    Chung (2018), p. 2.

  505. 505.

    Mill (1859), p. 16.

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Pikramenou, N. (2019). Intersex in Europe. In: Intersex Rights. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27554-9_4

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