Strategic Communication in EU-Russia Relations

  • Evgeny PashentsevEmail author


This chapter aims to identify the main content and features of strategic communication, paying special attention to its organization, efficiency and ethical dimensions. The challenges for strategic communication of the European Union (EU) in their impact on the relations with Russia are analyzed. There are serious grounds for imaging further degradation of EU-Russia relations—even up to the highly undesirable and dangerous point of collapse and the use of military means. However, at the same time, there are also opportunities to increase trust and, over time, craft-friendly relations between states—not only in Europe but through the world. Of course, this will require radical changes in different countries, taking into account their national backgrounds, historical experience and shared realities and trends of the twenty-first century.


Strategic communication International security International relations The European Union Russia 


  1. ABONG (2017) Curso EAD sobre Comunicação Estratégica e Incidência Política para OSC’s. Comunicação estratégica e incidência política para organizações da sociedade civil de 26 de setembro até 28 de novembro de 2017 (EAD course on strategic communication and political impact for CSOs. Strategic communication and political impact for civil society organisations. From 26 September to 28 November 2017). Abong. 25 Aug. Accessed 22 Jan 2018.
  2. Anderson B, Horvath B (2017) The Rise of the Weaponized AI Propaganda Machine. Medium. 12 Feb. Accessed 28 May 2019
  3. Armistead E (ed) (2004) Information operations: the hard reality of soft power. Brassey’s Inc., Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  4. Arpagian N (2010) Internet et les resseaux sociaux: outils de contestations et vecteur d’influence? (The internet and social networks: tools of protest and vectors of influence?). J La Revue Internationale et strategique (International and strategic review) 78:97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbosa E (2016) Comunicação estratégica em tempos de crise (Strategic communication in times of crisis). Editora Ideias e Letras, Sao Paulo.Google Scholar
  6. Bi Y, Wang J (2011) 战略传播纲要 (Essentials of strategic communication). State Administration College Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  7. Brunner EM, Cavelty MD (2009) The formation of in-formation by the US military: articulation and enactment of information threat imaginaries on the immaterial battlefield of perception. J Cambridge Review of International Affairs 22(4):629–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Byrkova E (2017) Vneshnjaja torgovlja Rossii v 2017 godu: itogi pervogo polugodija (External trade in Russia to 2017: results of the first half). Proved News. 16 Aug. Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  9. CA Political (2019) CA Advantage. Accessed 11 May 2019
  10. Cambridge Analytica (2017) Cambridge Analytica appoints RNC’s Darren Bolding as Chief Technology Officer. Cision PR Newswire. 18 Jan. Accessed 28 May 2019
  11. Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China (2010) China pledges to strengthen strategic communication with ROK. 5 Jul. Accessed 10 May 2019
  12. Chossudovsky M (2019) The Strategies of Global Warfare: War with China and Russia? Washington’s Military Design in the Asia-Pacific. Global Research, 8 Jan. Accessed 28 May 2019
  13. Committee on Foreign Affairs (2016) Draft Report on EU strategic communication to counteract propaganda against it by third parties (2016/2030(INI). European Parliament, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooper D (2018) Mark Zuckerberg broke his silence, but he didn’t have much to say. Yahoo Finance. 22 Mar. Accessed 22 Mar 2018
  15. Corman SR, Trethewey A, Goodall HL (2008) Weapons of mass persuasion: strategic communication to combat violent extremism (Frontiers in political communication). Peter Lang Inc., BernGoogle Scholar
  16. Defense Science Board (2004) Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Strategic Communication. Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  17. Department of Defense (2010) Report on Strategic Communication 2009. 11 Dec. The Secretary of Defense, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  18. Deputy Secretary of Defense (2006) Memorandum for Secretaries of the Military Departments. 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), 25 Sep. Strategic Communication (SC). Execution Roadmap. Deputy Secretary of Defense, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  19. Dinan D, Nugent N, Paterson WE (2011) The European Union in crisis. 1st edn. Palgrave Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Dukhanova P (2017) “SShA nuzhna vojna v Evrope”: Le Pen ob’jasnila, zachem Vashington nameren vooruzhit’ Ukrainu (“The US needs a war in Europe”: Le Pen explained why Washington intends to arm Ukraine). RT. 24 Mar. http:// Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  21. EAVI (2018) European Commission: fake news and online disinformation. EAVI. 14 Mar. Accessed 10 May 2019
  22. Embury-Dennis T (2017) Trump-Russia probe: Mueller ‘requests emails’ from Cambridge Analytica firm linked to 2016 campaign and Brexit. Independent. 15 Dec. Accessed 11 May 2019
  23. EU East StratCom Task Force (2017) Commentary: Means, goals and consequences of the pro-Kremlin disinformation campaign. EU vs Disinfo. 19 Jan. Accessed 10 May 2019
  24. European Commission (2018) A multi-dimensional approach to disinformation. Report of the independent High Level Group on fake news and online disinformation. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  25. European Parliament (2016a) EU strategic communication to counteract anti-EU propaganda by third parties. Final edition. 23 Nov. Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  26. European Parliament (2016b) Minority Opinion on EU strategic communication to counteract against it by third parties. Accessed 10 May 2019
  27. European Parliament (2017) EU-Russia trade continuing despite sanctions. Accessed 21 May 2019
  28. European Parliament (2019) European Parliament resolution of 12 March 2019 on the state of EU-Russia political relations. Accessed 10 May 2019
  29. European Union (2015) EU action plan on strategic communication. Ref. Ares(2015)2608242 – 22 Jun 2015. Eastern Partnership Civil Society Forum. Accessed 10 May 2019
  30. European Union External Action (2019) Strategic communications. Accessed 10 May 2019
  31. European Union Institute for Security Studies (2016a) In depth analysis. EU strategic communications with a view to counteracting propaganda. European Parliament, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  32. European Union Institute for Security Studies (2016b) Towards an EU global strategy – Consulting the experts. EUISS, ParisGoogle Scholar
  33. European Union Institute for Security Studies (2016c) Strategic Communications. East and South. Report 30. EUISS, ParisGoogle Scholar
  34. European Union Institute for Security Studies (2017) Hybrid threats and the EU. Conference Report. EUISS, ParisGoogle Scholar
  35. Fisher A, Lucas S, James G (eds) (2011) Trials of Engagement – The Future of US Public Diplomacy. Martinus Nijhoff, BostonGoogle Scholar
  36. Friedman G (2015) Europe: destined for conflict? Chicago Council for Global Affairs on YouTube. 04 Feb. Accessed 10 May 2019
  37. Gage D (2014) The continuing evolution of Strategic Communication within NATO. The Three Swords Magazine 27:53–55Google Scholar
  38. Grunig LA, Grunig JE, Dozier DM (1992) Excellence in public relations and communication management. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Grunig LA, Grunig JE, Dozier DM (2002) Excellent public relations and effective organizations: a study of communication management in three countries. Routledge, Mahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  40. Guaszcza J (2012) The last-mile problem: How data science and behavioral science can work together. Deloitte Review. Accessed 10 May 2019
  41. Haukkala H (2011) The EU-Russia Strategic Partnership: The Limits of Post-Sovereignty in International Relations (Routledge Advances in International Relations and Global Politics). Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Hellweg E (2012) 2012: The first big data election. Harvard Business Review. 13 Nov. Accessed 10 May 2019
  43. Hindustan Times (2013) Strategic communications China style. 22 Mar. Accessed 10 May 2019
  44. International Federation of Journalists (2016) Journalists’ unions warn about “confusing” EU Parliament resolution tackling anti-EU propaganda. 25 Nov. Accessed 10 May 2019
  45. Jennings R (2018) Vietnam’s Latest Demand for Agent Orange Compensation Described as Last Resort. Voice of America – Cambodia. Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  46. Karbasova OV (2010) Kommunikacionnyj menedzhment vo vneshnej politike Francii v konce XX veka (Communication management in foreign policy of France in the late twentieth century). ICSPSC, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  47. Katchanovski I (2015) The “snipers’ massacre” on the Maidan in Ukraine. Paper prepared for presentation at the annual meeting of American Political Science Association in San Francisco, September 3–6, 2015. Accessed 10 May 2019
  48. Know This (2019) Dolzhen znat’ (Know This) Fakt: armija SShA uchinila massovoe istreblenie mirnogo naselenija vo V’etname (Fact: the US army has committed mass extermination of civilians in Vietnam). Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  49. Korovin V (2014) Tret’ja mirovaja setevaja vojna (The third world network war). Piter, Saint PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  50. Lampiit A (2013) The real story of how big data analytics helped Obama win. Infoworld. 14 Feb. Accessed 10 May 2019
  51. Lev B, Daum JH (2004) The dominance of intangible assets: consequences for enterprise management and corporate reporting. Measuring Business Excellence 1:6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maass A-S (2016) EU-Russia Relations, 1999–2015: From Courtship to Confrontation (Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series). Abingdon, RoutledgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mafra R (2006) Entre o espetáculo, a festa e a argumentação: mídia, comunicação estratégica e mobilização social (Between the show, the party and the argument: media, strategic communication and social mobilization). Autentica, Belo HorizonteGoogle Scholar
  54. Makarenko SI (2017) Informacionnoe protivoborstvo i radiojelektronnaja bor’ba v setecentricheskih vojnah nachala XXI veka (Information warfare and electronic warfare in network-centric wars of the early twenty-first century). Naukoemkie tehnologii (Science intensive technologies), Saint PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  55. Makarychev A (2014) Russia and the EU in a Multipolar World: Discourses, Identities, Norms (Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society). Ibidem Press, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  56. Martin Niemöller Foundation (2019) „Als die Nazis die Kommunisten holten…“ (“When the Nazis retrieved the communists…”). Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  57. Molander RC, Riddile AS, Wilson PA (1996) Strategic Information Warfare. New Face of War. National Defense Research Institute, RAND, Santa Monica.Google Scholar
  58. MSLGROUP (2015) India Strategic Communications Report 2015: Inside the CMO’s Mind. MSLGROUP, ParisGoogle Scholar
  59. Murphy MD (2008) The trouble with strategic communication (s). US Army War College, Center for Strategic Leadership, Carlisle, PAGoogle Scholar
  60. Murphy MD (2010) Actions, images, words. Strategic communication as a key leader skill set. DoD Executive Management Training Center, Southbridge.Google Scholar
  61. O’Hair D, Friedrich GW, Dixon LD (2009) Strategic Communication in Business and the Professions. 7th edn. Pearson, BostonGoogle Scholar
  62. (2019) K 1980 godu v SSSR budet postroen kommunizm (By 1980, communism will be built in the USSR). In: Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  63. Orlov AS (2005) Vvedenie v kommunikacionnyj menedzhment (Introduction to communication management). Gardariki, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  64. Orlova TM (2002) Kommunikacionnyj menedzhment v upravlenii jekonomicheskimi sistemami (Communication management of the economic systems). Russian Presidential Academy of the Public Administration, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  65. Paraskova T (2017) UK Annuls Registrations Of Fraudulent Clones Of Russian Oil Firms. 23 Mar. Accessed 21 May 2019
  66. Pashentsev EN (2012) Kommunikacionnyj menedzhment i strategicheskaja kommunikacija (Communication management and strategic communication). ICSPSC, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  67. Pashentsev EN (2014) Kommunikacionnyj menedzhment i strategicheskaja kommunikacija: sovremennye tehnologii global’nogo vlijanija i upravlenija (Communication management and strategic communication: contemporary technologies of the global influence and management). ICSPSC, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  68. Pashentsev EN (ed) (2006) Pablik rilejshnz i kommunikacionnyj menedzhment: Zarubezhnyj opyt (Public relations and communication management: foreign experience). ICSPSC, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  69. Pashentsev EN (ed) (2007) Kommunikacionnyj menedzhment v biznese i politike (Communication Management in Business and Politics). ICSPSC (in two bands). ICSPSC, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  70. Pashentsev EN, Polunina OS (2014) Prezidenty pod mediapricelom: praktika informacionnogo protivoborstva v Latinskoj Amerike (Presidents under the media scope: the practice of information warfare in Latin America). ICSPSC, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  71. Pashentsev EN, Scherbakova TV (2005) Kommunikacionnyj menedzhment. konsalting v svjazjah s obshhestvennost’ju (Communication management. consulting in public relations). ICSPSC, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  72. Pashentsev EN, Simons G (eds) (2009) The rising role of communication management in world politics and business. ICSPSC, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  73. Patterson SJ, Radtke JM (2009) Strategic communications for nonprofit organization: seven steps to creating a successful plan. John Wiley and Sons, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Paul C (2011) Strategic communication: origins, concepts, and current debates. ABC-CLIO, Santa BarbaraGoogle Scholar
  75. Popescu N (2015) Hybrid tactics: Russia and the West. European Union Institute for Security Studies, ParisGoogle Scholar
  76. Porotsky S (2018) The “election management” company uses big data and psychometric profiling in operations designed to suppress voter segments. Global Security Review. 23 Mar. Accessed 22 Mar 2018
  77. President of Russian Federation (2013) Osnovy gosudarstvennoj politiki Rossijskoj Federacii v oblasti mezhdunarodnoj informacionnoj bezopasnosti na period do 2020 goda (utv. Prezidentom RF 24.07.2013 N Pr-1753) (Bases of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of the international information security for the period till 2020 (Approved by the President of the Russian Federation 24.07.2013 N PR-1753). Security Council of Russian Federation. Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  78. President of Russian Federation (2016) Doctrine of information security of the Russian Federation. Approved by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 646 of Dec 5. Security Council of Russian Federation. Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  79. President of Russian Federation (2017) Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 9 maja 2017 g. № 203 “O Strategii razvitija informacionnogo obshhestva v Rossijskoj Federacii na 2017 – 2030 gody” (The Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of May 9 No. 203 “On the Strategy of information society development in Russian Federation to 2017–2030”). Garant.Ru. Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  80. Private Office of the NATO Secretary General (2009) NATO Strategic Communications Policy. 14 Sep. Public Intelligence. Accessed 10 May 2019
  81. Rastorguev SP, Litvinenko MV (2014) Informacionnye operacii v seti Internet (Information operations on the Internet). Autonomous NCO “Center for Strategic Assessments and Forecasting” Publishers, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  82. Ray ML (1981) Advertising and Communication Management. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  83. Reva VE (2001) Kommunikacionnyj menedzhment (Communication management). State University of Penza Press, PenzaGoogle Scholar
  84. Rosefielde S, Kuboniwa M, Mizobata D, Haba K (2018) The Unwinding of the Globalist Dream: EU, Russia and China. World Scientific, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. RT (2016) ‘At war with Russia’: EU Parliament approves resolution to counter Russian media ‘propaganda’. RT. 23 Nov. Accessed 22 Jan 2018
  86. RT (2018a) Putin konstatiroval rost VVP Rossii po itogam 2017 goda na 1,4% (Putin stated the growth of Russia’s GDP at the end of 2017 by 1.4%): RT. 17 Jan. Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  87. RT (2018b) Oreshkin: rost rossijskoj jekonomiki v 2018 godu prevysit pokazateli proshlogo goda (Oreshkin: the growth of the Russian economy in 2018 will exceed last year). RT. 17 Jan. Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  88. Rusprofile (2019) OOO “Klinton” (Public Corporation “Clinton”). Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  89. Russia-Briefing (2018) Russia-EU Trade up 20 Percent in 2018. 12 Dec. Accessed 21 May 2019
  90. Savrutskaya EP, Kuznetsova EI, Sukhanov AI (2002) Kommunikacionnyj menedzhment (Communication management) (Part 1). State Linguistic University of Nizhniy Novgorod, Nizhniy NovgorodGoogle Scholar
  91. Schoen DE (2016) Putin’s master plan: to destroy Europe, divide NATO, and restore Russian power and global influence. Encounter Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  92. Sedova A (2014) Dolgovoj zakat Evropy (The Debt Decline of Europe). Svobodnaya Pressa (Free Press). Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  93. Shepel VM (ed) (2004) Kommunikacionnyj menedzhment (Communication management). Gardariki, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  94. Stovichek BE (2007) Strategic Communication. A Department of Defense Approach. US Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PAGoogle Scholar
  95. Strategic Communication and Public Diplomacy Policy Coordinating Committee (PCC) (2007) U. S. National Strategy for Public Diplomacy and Strategic Communication. PCC, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  96. Takala R (2016) Former NSA analyst wants Clinton to explain Kremlin connection. Washington Examiner. 08 Apr. Accessed 11 May 2019
  97. Taylor C (2016) An investigation just found Trump has hundreds of businesses in Russia. Occupy Democrats. 16 Oct. Accessed 10 May 2019
  98. The Latin Library (2019) L. Annaei Senecae Medea (Lucius Annaeus Seneca’s “Medea”). Accessed 21 May 2019
  99. The Moscow Times (2016) Revealed: the strange fate of Russia’s ‘Donald Trump Ltd.’ 29 Nov. Accessed 10 May 2019
  100. The Moscow Times (2017) Britain liquidates Russian oil companies’ fraudulent ‘clones’. 23 Mar. Accessed 10 May 2019
  101. The World Bank (2018) Russia economic report #40: Russia’s economy: preserving stability; doubling growth; halving poverty – how? Accessed 21 May 2019
  102. Thomas J (2015) The growing menace of fake LinkedIn profiles. Arabian Gazette. 15 Jan. URL: Accessed 10 Jan 2019
  103. Tikk E, Kerttunen M (2017) The alleged demise of the UN GGE: an autopsy and eulogy. Cyber Policy Institute, New York – The Hague – Tartu – JyvaskylaGoogle Scholar
  104. Tkachev I, Dzyadko T (2016) V Britanii pojavilis’ “klony” krupnejshih rossijskih neftjanyh kompanij (The “clones” of the Largest Russian Oil Companies Appeared in Britain). RBC. 21 Jan. Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  105. US Congress (2008) Strategic Communication Act of 2008. A Bill to Establish the National Center for Strategic Communication to Advise the President Regarding Public Diplomacy and International Broadcasting to Promote Democracy and Human Rights, and for Other Purpose. 17 Sep. S.3546, 110 Congress, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  106. US Joint Forces Command Joint Warfighting Center (2010) Commander’s Handbook for Strategic Communication and Communication Strategy, Version 3.0. US Joint Forces Command, Warfighting Center, Suffolk, VAGoogle Scholar
  107. US Office of the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs (2010) Public Diplomacy: Strengthening U. S. Engagement with the World. A strategic approach for the 21st century. Office of the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  108. Vinogradova EA (2015) Rol’ strategicheskoj kommunikacii vo vneshnej politike ALBA (na primere otnoshenij so stranami ES) (The role of strategic communication in the foreign policy of ALBA (on the example of relations with EU member states). PhD Thesis. Lomonosov Moscow State University, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  109. VladTime (2016) Lavrov rasskazal o celi dovesti tovarooborot Rossii s KNR do $200 mlrd (Lavrov told about the goal to bring Russia’s trade with China to $200 billion). VladTime. 31 May. Accessed 21 Apr 2019
  110. Volodenkov SV (2015) Internet-kommunikacii v global’nom prostranstve sovremennogo politicheskogo upravlenija (Internet communications in the global space of modern political governance). Publishing House of Moscow State University, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  111. Web and Macros (2019) Intangible and tangible assets. Accessed 11 May 2019
  112. White House (2010) National Framework for Strategic Communication. White House Strategic Communications report to Congress, dated 16 Mar, released 17 Mar. White House, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilson da Costa B (2005) A Comunicacão empresarial estratégica: definido os contornos de um conceito Conexão (Strategic business communication: defining the contours of a connection concept). J Comunicação e cultura, UCS, Caxias do Sul (Communication and culture, University of Caxias do Sul) 4(7):11–20Google Scholar
  114. Wylie C (2018) ‘I made Steve Bannon’s psychological warfare tool’: meet the data war whistleblower. The Guardian. 18 Mar. Accessed 10 May 2019
  115. Zamorski A (2017) Professor-author Bruce Newman looks at state of political marketing. De Paul. 14 Nov. Accessed 11 May 2019
  116. Zverintsev AB (1996) Kommunikacionnyj menedzhment. Rabochaja kniga menedzhera PR (Communication management. The working book of PR-manager). Soyuz, Saint PetersburgGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations