Advertisement

The Social Neuroscience of Empathy and Its Implication for Business Ethics

  • Joé T. MartineauEmail author
  • Jean Decety
  • Eric Racine
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Neuroethics book series (AIN)

Abstract

The neuroscience of empathy is an active area of research that has led to fundamental contributions to our understanding of its cognitive mechanisms and neural circuitry. However, these contributions to knowledge do not constitute a new “brain-based ethics” or the like. Rather, we argue that, situated within an interdisciplinary neuroethics framework inspired by philosophical pragmatism, cognitive neuroscience approaches enrich our understanding of empathy and its role in organizational and business contexts. Henceforth, in this chapter, contemporary neuroscience joins a long legacy of ethics scholarship on the role and possible contributions of empathy in business ethics. First, we review and synthetize knowledge on emotional and cognitive empathy, on empathic concern, and on the role of the different facets of empathy in motivating prosocial behavior and ethical decision-making, with a focus on the insights offered by recent research on the neuroscience of morality. Second, we discuss the contributions of the neuroscience of empathy and ethical decision-making to business ethics and propose five levels of significance: (1) empathy allows for a more informed decision-making in contexts of complexity; (2) empathy is a skill of ethical managers; (3) empathy is a prerequisite to moral engagement; (4) empathy is a rampart against a cold, impersonal, and dehumanized business; and (5) empathy is an essential aspect of efficient organizations. Implications for practice and education are also discussed.

Keywords

Empathy Emotions Neuroscience Ethical decision-making Neuroethics Business ethics 

References

  1. Adolphs R, Damasio H, Tranel D, Cooper G, Damasio AR. A role for somatosensory cortices in the visual recognition of emotion as revealed by three-dimensional lesion mapping. J Neurosci. 2000;20(7):2683–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amodio DM, Frith CD. Meeting of minds: the medial frontal cortex and social cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006;7(4):268–77.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Angelidis J, Ibrahim NA. The impact of emotional intelligence on the ethical judgment of managers. J Bus Ethics. 2011;99:111–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashar YK, Andrews-Hanna JR, Dimidjian S, Wager TD. Empathic care and distress: predictive brain markers and dissociable brain systems. Neuron. 2017;94(6):1263–73.e4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashforth BE, Humphrey RH. Emotion in the workplace: a reappraisal. Hum Relat. 1995;48(2):97–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Babiak P. When psychopaths go to work: a case study of an industrial psychopath. Appl Psychol Int Rev. 1995;44(2):171–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Babiak P, Hare R. Snakes in suits: when psychopaths go to work. New York: HarperCollins; 2006.Google Scholar
  8. Bagozzi RP, Verbeke WJMI, Dietvorst RC, Belschak FD, van den Berg WE, Rietdijk WJR. Theory of mind and empathic explanations of machiavellianism: a neuroscience perspective. J Manag. 2013;39(7):1760–98.Google Scholar
  9. Bandura A. Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 1999;3(3):193–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnard CI. The functions of the executives. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1938.Google Scholar
  11. Barnett MA. Empathy and related responses in children. In: Eisenberg N, Strayer J, editors. Empathy and its development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1987.Google Scholar
  12. Batson CD. These things called empathy: eight related but distinct phenomena. In: Decety J, Ickes W, editors. The social neuroscience of empathy. Cambridge, MA: MIT; 2009.Google Scholar
  13. Batson DC. The empathy-altruism hypothesis: issues and implications. In: Decety J, Ickes W, editors. Empathy: from bench to bedside. Cambridge: MIT Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  14. Batson CD, Klein TR, Highberger L, Shaw LL. Immorality from empathy-induced altruism: when compassion and justice conflict. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1995;68(6):1042–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Batson CD, Early S, Salvarani G. Perspective taking: imagining how another feels versus imaging how you would feel. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 1997;23(7):751–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Batson CD, Ahmad N, Yin J, Bedell SJ, et al. Two threats to the common good: self-interested egoism and empathy-induced altruism. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 1999;25(1):3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beetz A, Uvnäs-Moberg K, Julius H, Kotrschal K. Psychosocial and psychophysiological effects of human-animal interactions: the possible role of oxytocin. Front Psychol. 2012;3:234.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Bird FB. The muted conscience: moral silence and the practice of ethics in business. Westport: Quorum Books; 1996.Google Scholar
  19. Bird G, Silani G, Brindley R, White S, Frith U, Singer T. Empathic brain responses in insula are modulated by levels of alexithymia but not autism. Brain. 2010;133(Pt 5):1515–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bloom P. Against empathy: the case for rational compassion. New York: Ecco; 2016. 304 p.Google Scholar
  21. Boddy CR. Corporate psychopaths, conflict, employee affective well-being and counterproductive work behaviour. J Bus Ethics. 2014;121(1):107–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boyke J, Driemeyer J, Gaser C, Buchel C, May A. Training-induced brain structure changes in the elderly. J Neurosci. 2008;28(28):7031–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brown TA, Sautter JA, Littvay L, Sautter AC, Bearnes B. Ethics and personality: empathy and narcissism as moderators of ethical decision making in business students. J Educ Bus. 2010;85:203–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bryant BK. Mental health, temperament, family, and friends: perspectives on children’s empathy and social perspective taking. In: Eisenberg N, Strayer J, editors. Empathy and its development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1987.Google Scholar
  25. Bufalari I, Aprile T, Avenanti A, Di Russo F, Aglioti SM. Empathy for pain and touch in the human somatosensory cortex. Cerebral Cortex. 2007;17(11):2553–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chartrand TL, Lakin JL. The antecedents and consequences of human behavioral mimicry. Annu Rev Psychol. 2013;64:285–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cheng Y, Chen C, Lin CP, Chou KH, Decety J. Love hurts: an fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2010;51(2):923–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clarke J. Working with monsters. How to identify and protect yourself from workplace psychopaths. Sydney: Random House; 2005.Google Scholar
  29. Cohen MA. Empathy in business ethics education. J Bus Ethics Educ. 2012;9:359–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Coplan A. Understanding empathy. In: Coplan A, Goldie P, editors. Empathy: philosophical and psychological perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press; 2011. p. 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Damasio AR. Emotion and human brain. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2001;935:101–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Damasio AR. Descartes’ error: emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Penguin Books; 2005. 368 p.Google Scholar
  33. Damasio H, Grabowski T, Frank R, Galaburda AM, Damasio AR. The return of Phineas Gage: clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient. Science. 1994;264:1102–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. de Vignemont F. Affective mirroring: emotional contagion or empathy? In: Nolen-Hoeksema S, Fredrickson BL, Loftus GR, Wagenaar WA, editors. Atkinson & Hilgard’s introduction to psychology. 15th ed. Cengage Learning: Andover; 2009.Google Scholar
  35. de Vignemont F, Singer T. The empathic brain: how, when and why? Trends Cogn Sci. 2006;10(10):435–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Decety J. To what extent is the experience of empathy mediated by shared neural circuits? Emot Rev. 2010;2(3):204–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Decety J. The neural pathways, development and functions of empathy. Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2015;3:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Decety J, Cowell JM. Friends or foes: is empathy necessary for moral behavior? Perspect Psychol Sci. 2014a;9(5):525–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Decety J, Cowell JM. The complex relation between morality and empathy. Trends Cogn Sci. 2014b;18(7):337–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Decety J, Cowell JM. Empathy, justice, and moral behavior. AJOB Neurosci. 2015a;6(3):3–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Decety J, Cowell JM. The equivocal relationship between morality and empathy. In: Decety J, Wheatley T, editors. The moral brain: a multidisciplinary perspective. Cambridge: MIT; 2015b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Decety J, Jackson PL. The functional architecture of human empathy. Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev. 2004;3(2):71–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Decety J, Moriguchi Y. The empathic brain and its dysfunction in psychiatric populations: implications for intervention across different clinical conditions. BioPsychoSoc Med. 2007;1:22–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Decety J, Yoder KJ. Empathy and motivation for justice: cognitive empathy and concern, but not emotional empathy, predict sensitivity to injustice for others. Soc Neurosci. 2016;11(1):1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Decety J, Norman GJ, Berntson GG, Cacioppo JT. A neurobehavioral evolutionary perspective on the mechanisms underlying empathy. Prog Neurobiol. 2012;98(1):38–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Decety J, Lewis KL, Cowell JM. Specific electrophysiological components disentangle affective sharing and empathic concern in psychopathy. J Neurophysiol. 2015;114(1):493–504.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dewey J. Human nature and conduct: an introduction to social psychology. New York: Holt; 1922.Google Scholar
  48. Dietz J, Kleinlogel EP. Wage cuts and managers’ empathy: how a positive emotion can contribute to positive organizational ethics in difficult times. J Bus Ethics. 2014;119(4):461–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Donaldson T, Preston LE. The stakeholder theory of the corporation: concepts, evidence, and implications. Acad Manag Rev. 1995;20(1):65–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dutton JE, Worline MC, Frost PJ, Lilius J. Explaining compassion organizing. Adm Sci Q. 2006;51(1):59–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ebert A, Brüne M. Oxytocin and social cognition. In: Hurlemann R, Grinevich V, editors. Behavioral pharmacology of neuropeptides: oxytocin. Current topics in behavioral neurosciences, vol. 35. Cham: Springer; 2017.Google Scholar
  52. Echols S, Correll J. It’s more than skin deep: empathy and helping behavior across social groups. In: Decety J, editor. Empathy: from bench to bedside. Cambridge: MIT; 2012.Google Scholar
  53. Eisenberg N, Eggum ND. Empathic responding: sympathy and personal distress. In: Decety J, Ickes W, editors. The social neuroscience of empathy. Cambridge: MIT; 2009.Google Scholar
  54. Engen HG, Singer T. Empathy circuits. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013;23(2):275–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Eres R, Decety J, Louis WR, Molenberghs P. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy. Neuroimage. 2015;117:305–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Fan Y, Duncan NW, de Greck M, Northoff G. Is there a core neural network in empathy? An fMRI based quantitative meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35(3):903–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. FeldmanHall O, Dalgleish T, Evans D, Mobbs D. Empathic concern drives costly altruism. NeuroImage. 2015;105:347–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Feshbach ND, Feshbach S. Empathy and education. In: Decety J, Ickes W, editors. The social neuroscience of empathy. Cambridge: MIT; 2009.Google Scholar
  59. Gaudine A, Thorne L. Emotion and ethical decision-making in organizations. J Bus Ethics. 2001;31(2):175–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gazzaniga MS. The ethical brain. New York: Dana; 2005.Google Scholar
  61. Geng Y, Zhao W, Zhou F, Ma X, Yao S, Hurlemann R, et al. Oxytocin enhancement of emotional empathy: generalization across cultures and effects on amygdala activity. Front Neurosci. 2018;12:512.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Georgi E, Petermann F, Schipper M. Are empathic abilities learnable? Implications for social neuroscientific research from psychometric assessments. Soc Neurosci. 2014;9(1):74–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Gleichgerrcht E, Young L. Low levels of empathic concern predict utilitarian moral judgment. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e60418.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Goleman D. Emotional intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ. Toronto: Bantam Books; 1995.Google Scholar
  65. Gonzalez-Liencres C, Shamay-Tsoory SG, Brune M. Towards a neuroscience of empathy: ontogeny, phylogeny, brain mechanisms, context and psychopathology. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37(8):1537–48.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Hare R. Predators: the disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. Psychol Today. 1994;27(1):54–63.Google Scholar
  67. Hatfield E, Cacioppo JT, Rapson RL. Emotional contagion. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 1993;2(3):96–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hatfield E, Cacioppo JT, Rapson RL. Emotional contagion. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  69. Hein G, Silani G, Preuschoff K, Batson CD, Singer T. Neural responses to ingroup and outgroup members’ suffering predict individual differences in costly helping. Neuron. 2010;68(1):149–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hojat M, Vergare MJ, Maxwell K, Brainard G, Herrine SK, Isenberg GA, et al. The devil is in the third year: a longitudinal study of erosion of empathy in medical school. Acad Med. 2009;84(9):1182–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Holt S, Marques J. Empathy in leadership: appropriate or misplaced? An empirical study on a topic that is asking for attention. J Bus Ethics. 2012;105(1):95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Humphrey RH. The benefits of emotional intelligence and empathy to entrepreneurship. Entrep Res J. 2013;3:3.Google Scholar
  73. Jenkins AC, Mitchell JP. Medial prefrontal cortex subserves diverse forms of self-reflection. Soc Neurosci. 2011;6(3):211–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Jones TM. Ethical decision making by individuals in organizations: an academy of management. Acad Manag Rev. 1991;16(2):366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kayworth TR, Leidner DE. Leadership effectiveness in global virtual teams. J Manag Inf Syst. 2001;18(3):7–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kellett JB, Humphrey RH, Sleeth RG. Empathy and the emergence of task and relations leaders. Leadersh Q. 2006;17(2):146–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kidd DC, Castano E. Reading literary fiction improves theory of mind. Science. 2013;342(6156):377–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Kitcher P. The ethical project. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lamm C, Meltzoff AN, Decety J. How do we empathize with someone who is not like us? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Cogn Neurosci. 2010;22(2):362–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Lamm C, Decety J, Singer T. Meta-analytic evidence for common and distinct neural networks associated with directly experienced pain and empathy for pain. Neuroimage. 2011;54(3):2492–502.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Law KS, Chi-Sum W, Song LJ. The construct and criterion validity of emotional intelligence and its potential utility for management studies. J Appl Psychol. 2004;89(3):483–96.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Leiberg S, Anders S. The multiple facets of empathy: a survey of theory and evidence. Prog Brain Res. 2006;156(4):419–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Leslie AM, Friedman O, German TP. Core mechanisms in ‘theory of mind’. Trends Cogn Sci. 2004;8(12):528–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Lurie Y. Humanizing business through emotions: on the role of emotions in ethics. J Bus Ethics. 2004;49(1):1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mahsud R, Yukl G, Prussia G. Leader empathy, ethical leadership, and relations-oriented behaviors as antecedents of leader-member exchange quality. J Manag Psychol. 2010;25(6):561–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mayer JD, Salovey P. What is emotional intelligence? Emotional development and emotional intelligence: educational implications. New York: Basic Books; 1997. p. 3–34.Google Scholar
  87. Mayer JD, Salovey P, Caruso DR. Emotional intelligence: theory, findings, and implications. Psychol Inq. 2004;15(3):197–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. McVea JF, Freeman RE. A names-and-faces approach to stakeholder management: how focusing on stakeholders as individuals can bring ethics and entrepreneurial strategy together. J Manag Inq. 2005;14(1):57–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mencl J, May DR. The effects of proximity and empathy on ethical decision-making: an exploratory investigation. J Bus Ethics. 2009;85(2):201–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mintzberg H, Simons R, Basu K. Beyond selfishness. MIT Sloan Manag Rev. 2002;44(1):67–74.Google Scholar
  91. Moll J, de Oliveira-Souza R. Moral judgments, emotions and the utilitarian brain. Trends Cogn Sci. 2007;11(8):319–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mora F, Segovia G, del Arco A. Aging, plasticity and environmental enrichment: structural changes and neurotransmitter dynamics in several areas of the brain. Brain Res Rev. 2007;55(1):78–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Muller AR, Pfarrer MD, Little LM. A theory of collective empathy in corporate philanthropy decisions. Acad Manag Rev. 2014;39(1):1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nussbaum MC. Not for profit: why democracy needs the humanities. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  95. Pavlovich K, Krahnke K. Empathy, connectedness and organisation. J Bus Ethics. 2012;105:131–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pizarro D. Nothing more than feelings? The role of emotions in moral judgment. J Theory Soc Behav. 2000;30(4):355–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Preston SD, de Waal F. Empathy: its ultimate and proximate bases. Behav Brain Sci. 2002;25:1–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Preston SD, Bechara A, Damasio H, Grabowski TJ, Stansfield RB, Mehta S, et al. The neural substrate of cognitive empathy. Soc Neurosci. 2007;2(3–4):254–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Racine E. Interdisciplinary approaches for a pragmatic neuroethics. Am J Bioethics. 2008;8(1):52–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Racine E. Pragmatic neuroethics. Improving treatment and understanding of the mind brain. Cambridge: MIT; 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Riess H, Kelley JM, Bailey RW, Dunn EJ, Phillips M. Empathy training for resident physicians: a randomized controlled trial of a neuroscience-informed curriculum. J Gen Intern Med. 2012;27(10):1280–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ruby P, Decety J. What you believe versus what you think they believe: a neuroimaging study of conceptual perspective-taking. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17(11):2475–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Salminen JK, Saarijärvi S, Äärelä E, Toikka T, Kauhanen J. Prevalence of alexithymia and its association with sociodemographic variables in the general population of Finland. J Psychosom Res. 1999;46(1):75–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Schlegel AA, Rudelson JJ, Tse PU. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language. J Cogn Neurosci. 2012;24(8):1664–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Seo M-G, Barrett LF. Being emotional during decision making – good or bad? An empirical investigation. Acad Manag J. 2007;50(4):923–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sheng F, Han S. Manipulations of cognitive strategies and intergroup relationships reduce the racial bias in empathic neural responses. NeuroImage. 2012;61(4):786–97.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Singer T, Fehr E. The neuroeconomics of mind reading and empathy. Am Econ Rev. 2005;95(2):340–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Smith A. The theory of moral sentiments. London: Penguin Books; 2009 [1790].Google Scholar
  109. Smith ER, Seger CR, Mackie DM. Can emotions be truly group level? Evidence regarding four conceptual criteria. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2007;93(3):431.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith KE, Porges EC, Norman GJ, Connelly JJ, Decety J. Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts empathic concern and autonomic arousal while perceiving harm to others. Soc Neurosci. 2013;9(1):1–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Stein SJ, Papadogiannis P, Yip JA, Sitarenios G. Emotional intelligence of leaders: a profile of top executives. Leadersh Org Dev J. 2009;30(1):87–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Taubert M, Draganski B, Anwander A, Muller K, Horstmann A, Villringer A, et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. J Neurosci. 2010;30(35):11670–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Taylor GJ, Bagby MR, Parker JD. The alexithymia construct: a potential paradigm for psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatics. 1991;32(2):153–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Trinkaus J, Giacalone J. The silence of the stakeholders: zero decibel level at Enron. J Bus Ethics. 2005;58:237–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. van Baaren RB, Holland RW, Kawakami K, van Knippenberg A. Mimicry and prosocial behavior. Psychol Sci. 2004;15(1):71–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Ward J, Cody J, Schaal M, Hojat M. The empathy enigma: an empirical study of decline in empathy among undergraduate nursing students. J Prof Nurs. 2012;28(1):34–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Wilson EO. Consilience: the unity of knowledge. New York: Vintage Books; 1999.Google Scholar
  118. Yoder KJ, Decety J. The neuroscience of morality and social decision-making. Psychol Crime Law. 2018;24(3):279–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Zahavi D, Overgaard S. Empathy without isomorphism: a phenomenological account. In: Decety J, editor. Empathy: from bench to bedside. Cambridge: MIT; 2012.Google Scholar
  120. Zhong C-B. The ethical dangers of deliberative decision making. Adm Sci Q. 2011;56(1):1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ManagementHEC MontréalMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral NeuroscienceThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Montreal Clinical Research InstituteMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations