Stepping-Stone City: Process-Oriented Infrastructures to Aid Forest Migration in a Changing Climate

  • Qiyao Han
  • Greg Keeffe
Part of the Contemporary Urban Design Thinking book series (CUDT)


Large-scale urbanisation has posed extreme challenges to the biota of the planet by creating non-permeable barriers to movement, especially in the context of global climate change. From a multi-scale perspective, this chapter discusses the importance of landscape connectivity in facilitating ecological processes and develops a conceptual framework of process-oriented green infrastructures. A study in the Greater Manchester area, UK is used to demonstrate the application of this framework to improve urban landscapes for climate-driven forest migration. The result reveals that the migration process at the metropolitan scale can be facilitated by a large number of stepping stones formed by small landscape interventions at site scales.


Stepping stone Forest migration Functional connectivity Green infrastructure Ecological process Urban permeability 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qiyao Han
    • 1
  • Greg Keeffe
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Natural and Built EnvironmentQueen’s University BelfastBelfastUK

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