Gender and Masculinity and Femininity

  • Rolando Díaz-Loving
Part of the Latin American Voices book series (LAVIPH)


Interest in exploring and explaining the psychological dimensions of masculinity and femininity has led to a deep search into evolution and culture in order to identify the stereotypical and prototypical traits assigned to men and women. From it derives the importance of biological, social, cultural, and psychological variables in the differential perception and understanding of what it means to be a male or a female. This chapter covers the bio-psycho-socio-cultural theoretical foundations that guided empirical research into the measurement of instrumental and expressive traits, identifying their structure, their evolution, their correlates, and their impact on everyday life. The method of inquiry included qualitative studies to identify the culturally appropriate manifestation of instrumental and expressive traits in Mexico; the development and psychometric validation of a multifactorial inventory; and studies of sex differences as well as the relationship of instrumental and expressive traits to other personality traits and actual behavior. Results show the normative essence of the traits; the impact of culture on the construction of what is expected from each sex; the consistency of socially desirable instrumental and expressive traits with positive and valued personality development, as well as the relation between socially undesirable traits with psychopathology; and finally, the importance of instrumental and expressive traits in the prediction of positive interpersonal behaviors (such as support) and negative behaviors (such as violence).


Gender Masculinity-femininity Instrumentality-expressiveness 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolando Díaz-Loving
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyNational Autonomous University of MexicoMexico CityMexico

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