Culture, Ecosystems, and Behavior

  • Rolando Díaz-Loving
Part of the Latin American Voices book series (LAVIPH)


Psychology as a science seeks to answer fundamental questions about human thought and behavior. Even in the universal perspective of the discipline, a profound debate as to whether human behavior and thought are caused by nature (the genetic makeup of individuals) or nurture (the ecosystems in which individuals are reared) exists. As far as nurture is concerned, culture is the most pervasive element in the socialization and enculturation processes that are responsible for the upbringing of every human being. Culture specifies the adequate and expected language, behaviors, customs, habits, norms, beliefs, values, and cosmologies for each social group. The inclusion of culture in psychological thought, theory, and research expands and refurbishes the mainstream making it applicable to diverse settings and realities. Cultural approaches to psychological investigation provide an important corrective to untested assumptions about the universal applicability of research carried out with small samples that are not representative of the diversity of ecosystems in which human beings live. Indeed, one could argue that all research should consider cultural variables, in the sense that they should arise from the local circumstances in which they are located and for the specific samples that were studied. This chapter analyzes the contributions of anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, indigenous psychologies, and particularly, Mexican ethnopsychology, to the creation of an integral bio-psycho-socio-cultural and ecosystemic psychology.


Culture Ethnopsychology Cross-cultural psychology Indigenous psychology 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolando Díaz-Loving
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyNational Autonomous University of MexicoMexico CityMexico

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