Skip to main content

Forest Influences on Streamflow: Case Studies from the Tatsunokuchi-Yama Experimental Watershed, Japan, and the Leading Ridge Experimental Watershed, USA

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Forest-Water Interactions

Part of the book series: Ecological Studies ((ECOLSTUD,volume 240))

Abstract

Forested watersheds provide multiple ecosystem benefits to society, playing a key role in the supply of fresh water and the regulation of climate. In this chapter we review two classic paired watershed studies carried out in temperate forests in contrasting world regions; Tatsunokuchi-Yama Experimental Watershed in Japan and at the Leading Ridge Experimental Watershed in the United States. Long-term measurements of the water balance have been made at both experimental watersheds, with observations at the Tatsunokuchi-Yama Experimental Watershed beginning in 1937 and at the Leading Ridge Experimental Watershed in 1957. The catchments were observed over a range of changing climatic conditions. The forests changed over time due to a number of factors, such as changing tree species, gypsy moth defoliation, pine wilt disease, forest fire, clear-cutting, herbicide application, selective logging, and forest management. We summarize results from monitoring of these watersheds from 1937 to 2002 in Japan and from 1957 to 2007 in the United States. In the Tatsunokuchi-Yama watersheds annual precipitation ranged from about 600 to 1730 mm averaging 1220 mm year−1, with about 33% of the average annual incident precipitation delivered as streamflow in the watersheds. In the Leading Ridge watersheds annual precipitation ranged from about 470 to 1470 mm averaging 1060 mm year−1, with about 45% of the average annual precipitation delivered to streamflow. Results from these studies show that increases in water yield occur on small watersheds in response to removal of vegetation and that increases in streamflow diminish as vegetation is replanted or naturally recovers. Long-term watershed monitoring data are becoming increasingly useful to link the impacts of changing climate, vegetation, soil, and water as the data are synthesized and shared publicly, allowing application to new research questions and hypotheses.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abe T, Tani M, Kishioka T, Kobayashi C (1983) Changes of direct runoff after killing of pine trees by the pine-wood nematode. 34th transactions of Kansai branch of the Japanese Forestry Society, 337–340 (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Abe T, Tani M (1985) Streamflow changes after killing of pine trees by the pine-wood nematode. J Jpn For Soc 67:261–270. https://doi.org/10.11519/jjfs1953.67.7_261. (in Japanese)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Best A, Zhang L, McMahon T, Western A, Vertessey R (2003) A critical review of paired catchment studies with reference to seasonal flows and climatic variability. CSIRO Land and Water Technical Report No 25/03, 56 p

    Google Scholar 

  • Bosch JM, Hewlett JD (1982) A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evapotranspiration. J Hydrol 55:3–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(82)90117-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown AE, Zhang L, McMahon TA, Western AW, Vertessey RA (2005) A review of paired catchment studies for determining changes in water yield resulting from alterations in vegetation. J Hydrol 310:28–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.12.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brubaker K (2011) Multi-scale lidar-based approaches to characterizing stream networks, surface roughness, and landforms of forest watersheds. PhD dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 162 p

    Google Scholar 

  • Forest Influence Unit and Okayama Experimental Site, Kansai Branch Station (1979) Statistical report of hydrological observation at Tatsunokuchi-yama Experimental Watershed 1959–1977. Bull Forestry Forest Prod Res Inst 308:133–195. (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Goto Y, Tamai K, Miyama T, Kominami Y, Hosoda I (2006) Effects of disturbance on vertical stratification of broad-leaved secondary forests in Tatsunokuchi-yama Experimental Forest. Bull Forestry Forest Prod Res Inst 400:215–225. (in Japanese with English abstract

    Google Scholar 

  • Hattori S (1994) Water balance in forest in small rainfall region. J Jpn Soc Reveg Technol 19:296–302. https://doi.org/10.7211/jjsrt.19.276. (in Japanese)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hewlett JD (1982) Principles of forest hydrology. University of Georgia Press, Athens. 183 p

    Google Scholar 

  • Hornbeck JW, Adams MB, Corbett ES, Verry ES, Lynch JA (1995) A summary of water yield experiments on hardwood forested watersheds in the northeastern United States. In: Gottschalk KW, Fosbroke Sandra LC (eds) United States Forest Service, Proceedings of the central hardwood forest conference, March 1995, Morgantown, WV. Gen Tech Rep NE-197, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, pp 282–295

    Google Scholar 

  • Hornbeck JW, Adams MB, Corbett ES, Verry ES, Lynch JA (1993) Long-term impacts of forest treatments on water yield: a summary for northeastern USA. J Hydrol 150:323–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(93)90115-P

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Inaba N, Kondo K, Numamoto S, Hayashi S (2007) Influence of the definition of water-year period on discharge-duration analysis focused on low flow: in the case of the Tatsunokuchi-yama experimental watershed. J Jpn For Soc 89:412–415. https://doi.org/10.4005/jjfs.89.412. in Japanese with English summary

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kishioka T, Abe T, Tani M (1981) The influences on peak flow by forest fire and Hinoki plantation in Minamitani catchment, Tatsunokuchiyama experimental watershed. Annual report of Kansai Branch Station. Forestry Forest Prod Res Inst 23:55–58

    Google Scholar 

  • Lynch JA, Corbett ES, Mussallem K (1985) Best management practices for controlling nonpoint-source pollution on forested watersheds. J Soil Water Conserva 40:164–167. https://doi.org/10.2489/jswc.67.4.300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lynch JA, Sopper WE, Partridge DB (1972) Changes in streamflow following partial clearcutting on a forested watershed. In: Csallany SC, McLaughlin TB, Striffler WD (eds) National symposium on watersheds in transition proceedings. American Water Resources Association, Urbana, IL, pp 313–320

    Google Scholar 

  • Lynch JA, Corbett ES (1990) Evaluation of best management practices for controlling nonpoint pollution from silvicultural operations. J Am Water Resour Assoc 26:41–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.1990.tb01349.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mamiya Y (1988) History of pine wilt disease in Japan. J Nematol 20:219–226

    Google Scholar 

  • Tamai K (2005) A paired-catchment experiment in the Tatsunokuchi-yama experimental Forest, Japan: the influence of forest disturbance on water discharge. WIT Trans Ecol Environ 83:173–181. https://doi.org/10.2495/RM050171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tamai K (2008) The things to be understood with water balance monitoring and expectation to the future: an example in Taktsunokuchiyama experimental watershed. Water Sci 61:1–21. https://doi.org/10.20820/suirikagaku.52.3_34. (in Japanese)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tamai K (2010) Comparison of discharge duration curves from two adjacent forested catchments - effect of forest age and dominant tree species. J Water Resour Protect 2:742–750. https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2010.28086

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tamai K, Goto Y, Miyama T, Kominami Y (2004) Influence of forest decline by forest fire and pine wilt disease on discharge and discharge duration curve, -in case of Tatsunokuchi-yama experimental forest. J Jpn For Soc 86:375–379. (in Japanese with English summary. https://doi.org/10.11519/jjfs1953.86.4_375

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tani M, Abe T (1987) Analysis of stormflow and its source area expansion through a simple kinematic wave equation. In: Forest Hydrology and Watershed Management, Proceedings of the Vancouver Symposium. IAHS Publ No 167, 609–615

    Google Scholar 

  • Tani M, Fujimoto M, Katsuyama M, Kojima N, Hosoda I, Kosugi K, Kosugi Y, Nakamura S (2012) Predicting the dependencies of rainfall-runoff responses on human forest disturbances with soil loss based on the runoff mechanisms in granite and sedimentary rock mountains. Hydrol Process 26:809–826. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.8295

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tetzlaff D, Carey SK, McNamara JP, Laudon H, Soulsby C (2017) The essential value of long-term experimental data for hydrology and water management. Water Resour Res 53:2598–2604. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020838

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Koji Tamai .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Tamai, K., Boyer, E.W., Iida, S., Carlyle-Moses, D.E., Levia, D.F. (2020). Forest Influences on Streamflow: Case Studies from the Tatsunokuchi-Yama Experimental Watershed, Japan, and the Leading Ridge Experimental Watershed, USA. In: Levia, D.F., Carlyle-Moses, D.E., Iida, S., Michalzik, B., Nanko, K., Tischer, A. (eds) Forest-Water Interactions. Ecological Studies, vol 240. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-26086-6_21

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics