Becoming Smart

  • Mary J. ThornbushEmail author
  • Oleg Golubchikov
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Geography book series (BRIEFSGEOGRAPHY)


Based on the strategies of smart cities from around the world, an initial study and results are relayed here based on a sample of 30 cities. Subsequently, more case studies were added to the roster representing 50 strategies. A selection of 10 studies was then identified for a more in-depth focus on actually existing case studies. This chapter conveys a diversity of cases based on actually existing plans for smart development based on smart strategies. In this way, it is possible to pinpoint ‘actually existing smart cities’ from around the world. Inherent in the unique cases is a sense of the disparate priorities evident in smart strategies and cases contingent on their location.


Actually existing smart cities Smart strategies Case studies/cases Roster 


  1. Anthopoulos L (2017) Smart utopia VS smart reality: learning by experience from 10 smart city cases. Cities 63:128–148. Scholar
  2. Batty M, Axhausen KW, Giannotti F, Pozdnoukhov A, Bazzani A, Wachowicz M, Ouzounis G, Portugali Y (2012) Smart cities of the future. Eur Phys J Spec Top 214:481–518. Scholar
  3. Broto VC, Bulkeley H (2013) A survey of urban climate change experiments in 100 cities. Global Environ Change 23:92–102. Scholar
  4. Caird S (2018) City approaches to smart city evaluation and reporting: case studies in the United Kingdom. Urban Res Pract 11(2):159–179. Scholar
  5. Carvalho L (2015) Smart cities from scratch? A socio-technical perspective. Camb J Reg Econ Soc 8:43–60. Scholar
  6. Causone F, Sangelli A, Pagliano L, Carlucci S (2017) An exergy analysis for Milano smart city. Energy Procedia 111:867–876. Scholar
  7. Cho L (2017) Mass capture: the making of non-citizens and the Mainland Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macau residents. Mobilities 12(2):188–198. Scholar
  8. Cosgrave E, Arbuthnot K, Tryfonas T (2013) Living labs, innovation districts and information marketplaces: a systems approach for Smart Cities. Procedia Comput Sci 16:668–677. Scholar
  9. Cowley R, Joss S, Dayot Y (2018) The smart city and its publics: insights from across six UK cities. Urban Res Pract 11(1):53–77. Scholar
  10. Frost & Sullivan (2013) Strategic opportunity analysis of the global Smart City market, p 18.
  11. Glasmeier A, Christopherson S (2015) Thinking about smart cities. Camb J Reg Econ Soc 8(1):3–12. Scholar
  12. Joss S (2018) Future cities: asserting public governance. Palgrave Commun 4(1):36 (p 4).
  13. Juniper Research (2018) Smart cities—what’s in it for citizens?, p 24.
  14. Kitchin R (2015) Making sense of smart cities: addressing present shortcomings. Camb J Reg Econ Soc 8:131–136. Scholar
  15. Lee JH, Hancock M (2012) Toward a framework for smart cities: a comparison of Seoul, San Francisco and Amsterdam. In: Smart green cities conference on innovations for smart green cities: what’s working, what’s not, what’s next, Stanford Business School, Palo Alto, USA, 26–27 June 2012Google Scholar
  16. Liu Y, Weng X, Wan J, Yue X, Song H, Vasilakos AV (2017) Exploring data validity in transportation systems for smart cities. IEEE Commun Mag 55(5):26–33. Scholar
  17. Loo BPY, Chen C, Chan ETH (2010) Rail-based transit-oriented development: lessons from New York City and Hong Kong. Landscape Urban Plan 97:202–212. Scholar
  18. (2016) World city populations interactive map 1950–2030. Designed by DA Smith at CASA UCL with UN data from 2014. Available from
  19. Noland RB, Smart MJ, Guo Z (2016) Bikeshare trip generation in New York City. Transp Res A Policy 94:164–181. Scholar
  20. Odendaal N (2006) Towards the digital city in South Africa: issues and constraints. J Urban Technol 13(3):29–48. Scholar
  21. Ramaswami A, Russell AG, Culligan PJ, Sharma KR, Kumar E (2016) Meta-principles for developing smart, sustainable, and healthy cities. Science 352(6288):940–943. Scholar
  22. Shelton T, Zook M, Wiig A (2015) The ‘actually existing smart city’. Camb J Reg Econ Soc 8:13–25. Scholar
  23. Vasseur L, Horning D, Thornbush M, Cohen-Shacham E, Andrade A, Barrow E, Edwards SR, Wit P, Jones M (2017) Complex problems and unchallenged solutions: bringing ecosystem governance to the forefront of the UN sustainable development goals. Ambio 46(7):731–742. Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Environmental StudiesYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.School of Geography and PlanningCardiff UniversityCardiffWales, UK

Personalised recommendations