• Mary J. ThornbushEmail author
  • Oleg Golubchikov
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Geography book series (BRIEFSGEOGRAPHY)


A literature search was performed to track the development of the concept of smart cities as it appears in known published works. Google Scholar was the chosen search engine as representative of a comprehensive database. Based on this search, the chapter highlights trends in smart city development, beginning at the building scale and working upwards to city, regional, and ultimately national levels. European examples demonstrate how cities have upheld smart development to convey the potential for expansion as well as upscaling and multi-scaling. In addition, rebranding is considered alongside upscaling.


Google Scholar Internet searches Existing smart cities Sustainable cities  Smart energy cities Building scale City scale Multi-scalar   Smart development Energy framework 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Environmental StudiesYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.School of Geography and PlanningCardiff UniversityCardiffWales, UK

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