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A literature search was performed to track the development of the concept of smart cities as it appears in known published works. Google Scholar was the chosen search engine as representative of a comprehensive database. Based on this search, the chapter highlights trends in smart city development, beginning at the building scale and working upwards to city, regional, and ultimately national levels. European examples demonstrate how cities have upheld smart development to convey the potential for expansion as well as upscaling and multi-scaling. In addition, rebranding is considered alongside upscaling.
KeywordsGoogle Scholar Internet searches Existing smart cities Sustainable cities Smart energy cities Building scale City scale Multi-scalar Smart development Energy framework
- Agudo-Peregrina ÁF, Navío-Marco J (2016) Extended framework for the analysis of innovative smart city business models. In: 27th European regional conference of the international telecommunications society (ITS), Cambridge, UK, 7–9 Sept 2016. https://hdl.handle.net/10419/148654