Permanent Tooth Crown and Root Fractures

  • Rebecca L. Slayton
  • Elizabeth A. Palmer


School-aged children spend more time away from home than their younger siblings, are more likely to participate in sports and other activities that increase their risk for falls. In the preadolescent and adolescent age group, teeth are more likely to fracture than to experience luxation, due to denser alveolar bone. Maxillary incisors remain the most commonly injured teeth, particularly when the child has excessive maxillary overjet. In older adolescents, car accidents and violence add to the risk for trauma including dental trauma. There is some evidence that income and social inequality contribute to the risk for traumatic dental injury in the United States and other countries. In immature teeth, there is a possibility for pulp regeneration and avoidance of root canal treatment. Because of this possibility, it is essential that dentists are aware of the guidelines and provide appropriate treatment in a timely way.


Dental trauma Permanent teeth Tooth fracture Adolescent Pulpotomy Pulp therapy Pulp regeneration Trauma guidelines 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca L. Slayton
    • 1
  • Elizabeth A. Palmer
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric DentistryUniversity of Washington School of DentistrySeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric DentistryOregon Health & Science University School of DentistryPortlandUSA

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