An Adaptive Bully Algorithm for Leader Elections in Distributed Systems

  • Monir AbdullahEmail author
  • Ibrahim Al-Kohali
  • Mohamed OthmanEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11657)


Leader election is a classical problem in distributed system applications. There are many leader election algorithms, but we focus here on Bully Algorithm (BA). The main drawback of BA algorithm is the high number of messages passing. In BA algorithm, the message passing has order O (\(n^2\)) that increases heavy traffic on the network. In this paper, an Adaptive BA (ABA) is proposed to reduce the number of messages and make the leader election operation more flexible and safer. The proposed algorithm is based on the Highest Process Identification (HPI) and the Next HPI (NHPI) to facilitate the leader election operation. Moreover, the repetition of the leader election is stopped when the candidate coordinator fails. Our analytical equations show that the ABA algorithm is more efficient rather than BA algorithm, in both, the number of message passing and the latency, and the message passing complexity decreased to O(n).


Bully algorithm Election system Message passing 



The authors would like to thank everyone who provided valuable suggestions and support to improve the content of the paper. This research work is partial financially supported by the Malaysian Ministry of Education under the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/1/2018/STG06/UPM/01/2).


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer Science DepartmentUniversity of BishaBishaSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Information Technology DepartmentThamar UniversityDhamarYemen
  3. 3.Laboratory of Computational Science and Mathematical Physics, Institute for Mathematical ResearchUniversiti Putra Malaysia, UPMSerdangMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Communication Technology and NetworkUniversiti Putra Malaysia, UPMSerdangMalaysia

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