Co-Infection with TB and HIV: Converging Epidemics, Clinical Challenges, and Microbial Synergy



Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are the two leading causes of infectious disease-related death today. An estimated 2.6 million people die as a result of infection with one or both of these pathogens annually, while a range of morbidities afflict tens of millions more. The resurgence of TB in the years following the start of the HIV/AIDS pandemic revealed a close relationship of these two infectious diseases. TB and HIV are now viewed as a syndemic that impedes efforts to reduce incidence of infection, complicates treatment, and promotes development of drug resistance. This chapter summarizes the complex factors whereby TB and HIV converge to drive a global health emergency and discusses ongoing research and clinical efforts to reduce dual disease.


Tuberculosis HIV/AIDS TB and HIV co-infection Microbial synergy Pathogenesis Cellular immunity Immune dysfunction Innate immunity Clinical challenges Drug resistance 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of Texas Medical Branch at GalvestonGalvestonUSA
  2. 2.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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