Concomitant Strabismus



Concomitant strabismus measures the same in all directions of gaze and is usually horizontal and congenital in origin. It may be manifest or latent, constant or intermittent and residual or consecutive. This chapter discusses the classification, etiology and management of comitant esotropias and exotropias.


Esotropia Exotropia Residual Consecutive Manifest 

Supplementary material

Video 6.2

A 75 year old man who previously underwent a left sided surgery for esotropia as a child. He now has a large left constant consecutive exotropia. On covering the right eye, he takes up fixation momentarily but switches back when the cover is removed. There is no significant change in the deviation on an alternate cover test (MOV 163142 kb)

Video 6.3

A 22 year old man who has undergone previous Right MR recession and now complains of diplopia in left gaze. There is no apparent strabismus in primary position on an alternate cover test but an alternating esotropia is obvious when this is carried out in laeveversion (MOV 104489 kb)

Video 6.4

A 25 year old man with consecutive exotropia following previous strabismus surgery. He has bilateral limitation of adduction (right greater than left) with a large angle of exotropia. He can take up fixation readily with either eye and the exotropia increases in lateral gazes as demonstrated by a cover-uncover test. Note the medial conjunctival scarring in both eyes subsequent to previous MR recessions (MOV 91900 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Royal Free London NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK

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