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Beans

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Abstract

In many regions where beans are grown, full yield potentials are not met, due to several factors, including inadequate soil fertility, insect predation, diseases, high temperatures, and drought. There are several insect pests that attack common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) depending on the geographic location, but predation by a wide range of arthropods – aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, whiteflies, mites, and thrips – is seen in the Neotropical region. Typically, chemical pesticides are used more commonly in the commercial production setting, rather than by smallholder farmers. Subsistence farmers with little access to costly farm inputs such as pesticides and biological control agents must rely on natural pest regulation and cultural controls. Therefore, most of the applied biological control has been used by medium- and large-scale farmers in Latin America. Several examples of natural enemies of bean pest have been cited in the literature. Some of them are available as commercial product in Brazil. Parasitoid as Trichogramma spp. and pathogens as nucleopolyhedrovirus of Helicoverpa armigera, Chrysodeixis includens and Spodoptera frugiperda, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Beauveria bassiana have been the most used although in small scale by bean farmers. Coordinated actions among researchers and public and private extension institutions are necessary to implement integrated pest management (IPM) techniques to explore the full potential of the natural enemies of bean and cowpea pests.

Keywords

  • Commercial biological insecticides
  • Soil pests
  • Whitefly
  • Leafhoopers
  • Leaf miners
  • Chrysomelid beetles
  • Lepidoptera

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Quintela, E.D., da Costa-Lima, T.C., Diniz, A.J.F. (2019). Beans. In: Souza, B., Vázquez, L., Marucci, R. (eds) Natural Enemies of Insect Pests in Neotropical Agroecosystems. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24733-1_22

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