Advertisement

Cultural Self 2: Gender and Sex, Disability, and Age

  • Jason D. BrownEmail author
Chapter
  • 193 Downloads

Abstract

Counseling and psychotherapy in a diverse society necessitate awareness of social location. In this chapter, the topics include gender and sex, ability, and age. Gender is a social construction, while physical characteristics determine sex. Disabilities may indicate limitations in the environment or limitations possessed by an individual. The medical model of disability is prominent in psychology. Age may be defined physically, emotionally, and intellectually as well as subjectively. Together, these social locations play a role in the dynamic interplay between therapists and their clients.

References

  1. Albrecht, G. L. (1992). The disability business (Vol. 190). New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association. (2012). Guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. The American Psychologist, 67(1), 10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association. (2015). Definitions related to sexual orientation and gender diversity in APA documents. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/sexuality-definitions.pdf.
  4. American Psychological Association. (2019). APA applauds SAMHSA report calling for end to ‘conversion therapy’ for youth. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2015/10/conversion-therapy.
  5. Bailey, J. M., Vasey, P. L., Diamond, L. M., Breedlove, S. M., Vilain, E., & Epprecht, M. (2016). Sexual orientation, controversy, and science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17(2), 45–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barr, J. J., & Bracchitta, K. (2015). Attitudes toward individuals with disabilities: The effects of contact with different disability types. Current Psychology, 34(2), 223–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beard, J. R., Officer, A., De Carvalho, I. A., Sadana, R., Pot, A. M., Michel, J. P., & Thiyagarajan, J. A. (2016). The World report on ageing and health: A policy framework for healthy ageing. The Lancet, 387(10033), 2145–2154.Google Scholar
  8. Beek, T., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., & Kreukels, B. P. (2016). Gender incongruence/gender dysphoria and its classification history. International Review of Psychiatry, 28(1), 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brault, M. W. (2012). Americans with disabilities: 2010 (pp. 1–23). Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  10. Carver, L. F., Vafaei, A., Guerra, R., Freire, A., & Phillips, S. P. (2013). Gender differences: Examination of the 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI-12) in an older Brazilian population. PLoS One, 8(10), e76356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Degener, T. (2016). Disability in a human rights context. Laws, 5(3), 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Graaf, N. M., Manjra, I. I., Hames, A., & Zitz, C. (2018). Thinking about ethnicity and gender diversity in children and young people. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24(2), 291–303.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104518805801.
  13. Dickinson, T., Cook, M., Playle, J., & Hallett, C. (2012). Queer’ treatments: Giving a voice to former patients who received treatments for their ‘sexual deviations. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(9–10), 1345–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Donnelly, K., & Twenge, J. M. (2017). Masculine and feminine traits on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, 1993–2012: A cross-temporal meta-analysis. Sex Roles, 76(9–10), 556–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2011, March 25, Friday). Rules and regulations. Federal Register, 76(58), 16978.Google Scholar
  16. Finkelstein, L. M., King, E. B., & Voyles, E. C. (2015). Age metastereotyping and cross-age workplace interactions: A meta view of age stereotypes at work. Work, Aging and Retirement, 1(1), 26–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flatt, T. (2012). A new definition of aging? Frontiers in Genetics, 3, 148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Government of Canada. (2019). Choose or update the gender identifier on your passport or travel document. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/canadian-passports/change-sex.html#document-dont-show-gender.
  19. Haines, E. L., Deaux, K., & Lofaro, N. (2016). The times they are a-changing … or are they not? A comparison of gender stereotypes, 1983–2014. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40(3), 353–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hatzenbuehler, M. L., McLaughlin, K. A., & Slopen, N. (2013). Sexual orientation disparities in cardiovascular biomarkers among young adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44(6), 612–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hyde, J. S., Bigler, R. S., Joel, D., Tate, C. C., & van Anders, S. M. (2019). The future of sex and gender in psychology: Five challenges to the gender binary. American Psychologist, 74(2), 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Katz-Wise, S. L., & Hyde, J. S. (2015). Sexual fluidity and related attitudes and beliefs among young adults with a same-gender orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(5), 1459–1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kornadt, A. E., Voss, P., & Rothermund, K. (2015). Hope for the best, prepare for the worst? Future self- views and preparation for age-related changes. Psychology and Aging, 30(4), 967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lindsay, S., & Cancelliere, S. (2018). A model for developing disability confidence. Disability and Rehabilitation, 40(18), 2122–2130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. MacLaughlin, D. T., & Donahoe, P. K. (2004). Sex determination and differentiation. New England Journal of Medicine, 350(4), 367–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Munyi, C. W. (2012). Past and present perceptions towards disability: A historical perspective. Disability Studies Quarterly, 32(2), 1–11.Google Scholar
  27. National Center for Transgender Equality. (2019). Can I get a passport with my current gender? Retrieved from https://transequality.org/know-your-rights/passports.
  28. Ng, R., Allore, H. G., Trentalange, M., Monin, J. K., & Levy, B. R. (2015). Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: Evidence from a database of 400 million words. PLoS One, 10(2), e0117086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Planned Parenthood. (2019). Gender and gender identity. Retrieved from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/sexual-orientation-gender/gender-gender-identity.
  30. Pownall, J., Wilson, S., & Jahoda, A. (2017). Health knowledge and the impact of social exclusion on young people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 1–10.Google Scholar
  31. Richards, C., & Barker, M. J. (Eds.). (2015). The Palgrave handbook of the psychology of sexuality and gender. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  32. Rosa, N. M., Bogart, K. R., Bonnett, A. K., Estill, M. C., & Colton, C. E. (2016). Teaching about disability in psychology: An analysis of disability curricula in US undergraduate psychology programs. Teaching of Psychology, 43(1), 59–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rosario, M., & Schrimshaw, E. W. (2014). Theories and etiologies of sexual orientation. In D. L. Tolman & L. M. Diamond (Eds.), APA handbook of sexuality and psychology. Volume 1: Person-based approaches. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  34. Rothman, J. (2018). Social work practice across disability. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith, P. M., & Koehoorn, M. (2016). Measuring gender when you don’t have a gender measure: Constructing a gender index using survey data. International Journal for Equity in Health, 15(1), 82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Statistics Canada. (2019). Disabilities in Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/75-006-x/2014001/article/14115-eng.htm.
  37. The Americans with Disabilities Act. (1990). ADA acronyms & abbreviations. https://adata.org/acronyms-abbreviations.
  38. United Nations. (2019). Department of economic and social affairs: Disability. Retrieved September 13 from: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities/preamble.html.
  39. University of Southern California. (2019). LGBT resource centre. Retrieved from https://lgbtrc.usc.edu/education/terminology/.
  40. Van Anders, S. M. (2015). Beyond sexual orientation: Integrating gender/sex and diverse sexualities via sexual configurations theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(5), 1177–1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vincent, J. (1995). Inequality and old age. London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  42. Werner, S., & Araten-Bergman, T. (2017). Social workers’ stigmatic perceptions of individuals with disabilities: A focus on three disabilities. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 10(2), 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Westerhof, G. J., & Tulle, E. (2007). Meanings of ageing and old age: Discursive contexts, social attitudes and personal identities. In J. Bond, S. Peace, F. Dittmann-Kohli, & G. J. Westerhof (Eds.), Ageing in society (pp. 235–254). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Whitbourne, S. K., & Whitbourne, S. B. (2010). Adult development and aging: Biopsychosocial perspectives. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Willems, A. P. A. M., Embregts, P. J. C. M., Hendriks, L., & Bosman, A. (2016). Towards a framework in interaction training for staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(2), 134–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wintemute, R. (2017). Recognising new kinds of direct sex discrimination: Transsexualism, sexual orientation and dress codes. In N. Bamforth (Ed.), Sexual orientation and rights (pp. 265–290). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wirths, C. G., & Williams, R. A. (2017). Lives through the years: Styles of life and successful aging. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wood, W., & Eagly, A. H. (2015). Two traditions of research on gender identity. Sex Roles, 73(11–12), 461–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. World Health Organization. (2015). World report on ageing and health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ageing/events/world-report-2015-launch/en/.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationWestern UniversityLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations