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Cytology Techniques

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Practical Cytopathology

Part of the book series: Practical Anatomic Pathology ((PAP))

Abstract

Over the years, cytopathology laboratories have experienced dramatic changes in the numbers and types of specimens submitted for evaluation. With the application of more sophisticated image guidance technology, cells can be obtained from almost all anatomic sites by fine-needle aspiration (FNA).

Accurate interpretation of cytologic samples is highly dependent on the quality of the preparation. Preparation includes several equally important steps that include specimen collection, placement of sample on slides, fixation, staining, and coverslipping of the cell sample. A better understanding of the cytopreparation techniques is necessary to produce optimal results.

There have been remarkable methodological advances in cytology in the past several years. Immunochemistry is one of the most successful ancillary study techniques. Improved cytopreparatory methodology including use of cell block together with availability of sensitive and specific markers has led to greater diagnostic utility of cytological preparations for pathology diagnosis. In cytology, the practical utility of immunocytochemistry includes differentiation of primary from metastatic tumors, determination of the sites of origin of metastatic tumors, assessment of prognostic and predictive markers, and characterization of poorly differentiated neoplasms.

Molecular and cytogenetic techniques have been growing rapidly and become an integral part of pathology over the last decade. They are also being applied in many areas of diagnostic cytopathology, such as early diagnosis of premalignant lesions and cancer, prediction of prognosis, and treatment response.

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He, J., Gong, Y. (2020). Cytology Techniques. In: Xu, H., Qian, X., Wang, H. (eds) Practical Cytopathology . Practical Anatomic Pathology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24059-2_1

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