How to Reduce Biological Risk Among Nursing Students: A Research Project

  • Cristina PetrucciEmail author
  • Valeria Caponnetto
  • Carmen La Cerra
  • Vittorio Masotta
  • Elona Gaxhja
  • Angelo Dante
  • Loreto Lancia
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1008)


The risk derived by the transmission of biological agents (especially blood-borne pathogens) responsible for infectious diseases in human beings is called biological risk (or hazard). Biological risk is the most diffused occupational hazard in the hospital, and it represents a threat to nursing students particularly. This project aims to provide evidence of the efficacy of simulation laboratory in preventing (reducing) accidental exposure to potentially infected biological material among nursing students. Nursing students of the first, second and third years attending an Italian Nursing Degree Course, after they give their informed consent, will be enrolled in a longitudinal observational study to investigate the experience of nursing students about accidental exposures to biological materials before and after attending simulation training sessions with part task trainers, according to the “mastery learning” methodology. The mastery learning will be facilitated by audio-video recording during the students’ performance in the high fidelity simulation laboratory. The study is expected to provide scientific evidence of the effectiveness of simulation training carried out by “mastery learning strategy” to prevent (reduce) accidental exposure to potentially infected biological material in a population of undergraduate nursing students.


Nursing students safety Part task trainers Biological risk Simulation laboratory Mastery learning 


  1. 1.
    Perry, J., Jagger, J.: Healthcare worker blood exposure risks: correcting some outdated statistics. Adv. Exp. Prev. 6, 28–31 (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smith, D.R., Leggat, P.A.: Needlestick and sharps injuries among nursing students. J. Adv. Nurs. 51(5), 449–455 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yang, Y.H., Liou, S.H., Chen, C.J., Yang, C.Y., Wang, C.L., Chen, C.Y., Wu, T.N.: The effectiveness of a training program on reducing needlestick injuries/sharp object injuries among soon graduate vocational nursing school students in southern Taiwan. J. Occup. Health 49(5), 424–429 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stefanati, A., Boschetto, P., Previato, S., Kuhdari, P., De Paris, P., Nardini, M., Gabutti, G.: A survey on injuries among nurses and nursing students: a descriptive epidemiologic analysis between 2002 and 2012 at a University Hospital. Med. Lav. 106(3), 216–229 (2015)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Samaranayake, L., Scully, C.: Needlestick and occupational exposure to infections: a compendium of current guidelines. Health Br. Dent. J. 215(4), 163–166 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bhattarai, S., Smriti, K.C., Pradhan, P.M., Lama, S., Rijal, S.: Hepatitis B vaccination status and needle-stick and sharps-related Injuries among medical school students in Nepal: a cross-sectional study. BMC Res. Notes 7, 774 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sacco, A., Stella, I.: Occupational injuries in nursing school students. Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro e Ergonomia 29, 636 (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Petrucci, C., Alvaro, R., Cicolini, G., Cerone, M.P., Lancia, L.: Percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures in nursing students: an Italian observational study. J. Nurs. Scholarsh. 41(4), 337–343 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Davenport, A., Cohn, S., Myers, F.: How to protect yourself after body fluid exposure. Nursing 39(5), 22–28 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ewertsson, M., Allvin, R., Holmström, I.K., Blomberg, K.: Walking the bridge: nursing students’ learning in clinical skill laboratories. Nurse Educ. Pract. 15(4), 277–283 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    La Cerra, C., Dante, A., Caponnetto, V., Franconi, I., Gaxhja, E., Petrucci, C., Lancia, L.: High-fidelity patient simulation in critical care area: a methodological overview. In: Di Mascio, T., Vittorini, P., Gennari, R., De la Prieta, F., Rodríguez, S., Temperini, M., Azambuja Silveira, R., Popescu, E., Lancia, L. (eds.) Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, pp. 269–274. Springer, Cham (2019)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Petrucci, C., La Cerra, C., Caponnetto, V., Franconi, I., Gaxhja, E., Rubbi, I., Lancia, L.: Literature-based analysis of the potentials and the limitations of using simulation in nursing education. In: Vittorini, P., Gennari, R., Di Mascio, T., Rodríguez, S., De la Prieta, F., Ramos, C., Azambuja Silveira, R. (eds.) Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning. AISC, pp. 57–64. Springer, Cham (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aggarwal, R., Mytton, O.T., Derbrew, M., Hananel, D., Heydenburg, M., Issenberg, B., MacAulay, C., Mancini, M.E., Morimoto, T., Soper, N., Ziv, A., Reznick, R.: Training and simulation for patient safety. Qual. Saf. Health Care 19(Suppl 2), i34–i43 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen, S.H., Chen, S.C., Lee, S.C., Chang, Y.L., Yeh, K.Y.: Impact of interactive situated and simulated teaching program on novice nursing practitioners’ clinical competence, confidence, and stress. Nurse Educ. Today 55, 11–16 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kiernan, L.C.: Evaluating competence and confidence using simulation technology. Nursing 48(10), 45–52 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zimmerman, D.M., House, P.: Medication safety: simulation education for new RNs promises an excellent return on investment. Nurs. Econ. 34(1), 49–51 (2016)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reid, M.J., Biller, N., Lyon, S.M., Reilly, J.P., Merlin, J., Dacso, M., Friedman, H.M.: Reducing risk and enhancing education: U.S. medical students on global health electives. Am. J. Infect. Control 42(12), 1319–1321 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Burden, A., Pukenas, E.W.: Use of simulation in performance improvement. Anesthesiol. Clin. 36(1), 63–74 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Issenberg, S.B., McGaghie, W.C., Petrusa, E.R., Lee Gordon, D., Scalese, R.J.: Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review. Med. Teach. 27(1), 10–28 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McGaghie, W.C.: Mastery learning: it is time for medical education to join the 21st century. Acad. Med. 90(11), 1438–1441 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dunn, W., Dong, Y., Zendejas, B., Ruparel, L., Farley, D.: Simulation, mastery learning and healthcare. Am. J. Med. Sci. 353(2), 158–165 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dante, A., La Cerra, C., Caponnetto, V., Franconi, I., Gaxhja, E., Petrucci, C., Lancia, L.: Efficacy of high-fidelity patient simulation in nursing education: Research protocol of ‘S4NP’ randomized controlled trial. In: Di Mascio, T., Vittorini, P., Gennari, R., De la Prieta, F., Rodríguez, S., Temperini, M., Azambuja Silveira, R., Popescu, E., Lancia, L. (eds.) Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, pp. 261–268. Springer, Cham (2019)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Decreto legislativo 30 giugno 2003, n. 196. Codice in materia di protezione dei dati personali. Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 174 del 29-7-2003 - Suppl. Ordinario n. 123 (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Decreto legislativo 10 agosto 2018, n. 101. Disposizioni per l’adeguamento della normativa nazionale alle disposizioni del regolamento (UE) 2016/679 del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio, del 27 aprile 2016, relativo alla protezione delle persone fisiche con riguardo al trattamento dei dati personali, nonché alla libera circolazione di tali dati e che abroga la direttiva 95/46/CE (regolamento generale sulla protezione dei dati). (18G00129) Gazzetta Ufficiale Serie Generale n. 205 del 04-09-2018 (2018)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Petrucci
    • 1
    Email author
  • Valeria Caponnetto
    • 1
  • Carmen La Cerra
    • 1
  • Vittorio Masotta
    • 1
  • Elona Gaxhja
    • 1
  • Angelo Dante
    • 1
  • Loreto Lancia
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health, Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of L’AquilaCoppito, L’AquilaItaly

Personalised recommendations