Aging Monitors for SRAM Memory Cells and Sense Amplifiers

  • Helen-Maria Dounavi
  • Yiorgos Sfikas
  • Yiorgos TsiatouhasEmail author


Static random access memories (SRAMs) in nanometre technologies undergo reliability degradation due to the increased process variations but also due to various aging mechanisms. Bias temperature instability (BTI) and hot carrier injection (HCI) phenomena are highly accused of the aging-related reliability reduction. This degradation is getting worse under excess stress conditions (high operating temperature and voltage levels). Aging phenomena significantly affect the performance characteristics of SRAMs since they affect among others speed, operating voltages, memory cells’ noise margins and sense amplifiers’ input offset voltage. Excessive performance degradation due to aging in an SRAM will lead to failures generation. Traditionally, designers use guard bands; extra margins are considered to guarantee that the memory will operate correctly during its lifetime. However, this approach negatively influences the performance of the circuit since it affects speed, power consumption, area and possibly the yield. Thus, it is imperative to develop aging-tolerant design techniques that will provide the ability to sense aging levels, predict upcoming failures in the memory and early react to retain the reliable operation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen-Maria Dounavi
    • 1
  • Yiorgos Sfikas
    • 1
  • Yiorgos Tsiatouhas
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece

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